Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico Cro

Aviano, Italy

Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico Cro

Aviano, Italy
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Pellarin I.,University of Trieste | Pellarin I.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico Cro | Arnoldo L.,University of Trieste | Costantini S.,International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. © 2016 Pellarin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | Kirchhoff T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Green T.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Vijai J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 121 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2010

The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10-5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10-4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, p=3:8×10-5) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, p=6:6-×10-5). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, p=1:2×10-8). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.

Pezzoli A.,Azienda ospedaliera universitaria SantAnna | Cannizzaro R.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico Cro | Pennazio M.,University of Turin | Rondonotti E.,University of Milan | And 13 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2011

Background and Aim: Few studies have specifically addressed interobserver agreement in describing lesions identified during capsule endoscopy.The aim of our study is to evaluate interobserver agreement in the description of capsule endoscopy findings. Materials and methods: Consecutive short segments of capsule endoscopy were prospectively observed by 8 investigators. Seventy-five videos were prepared by an external investigator (gold standard). The description of the findings was reported by the investigators using the same validated and standardized capsule endoscopy structured terminology. The agreement was assessed using Cohen's kappa statistic. Results: As concerns the ability to detect a lesion, the agreement with the gold standard was moderate (kappa 0.48), as well as the agreement relating to the final diagnosis (κ 0.45). The best agreement was observed in identifying the presence of active bleeding (κ 0.72), whereas the poorest agreement concerned the lesion size (κ 0.32). The agreement with the GS was significantly better in endoscopists with higher case/volume of capsule endoscopy per year. Diagnostic concordance was better in the presence of angiectasia than in the presence of polyps or ulcers/erosions. Conclusions: Correct lesion identification and diagnosis seem more likely to occur in presence of angiectasia, and for readers with more experience in capsule endoscopy reading. © 2010.

Antoniou A.C.,University of Cambridge | Wang X.,Mayo Medical School | Fredericksen Z.S.,Mayo Medical School | McGuffog L.,University of Cambridge | And 189 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosis over age 35. We took forward 96 SNPs for replication in another 5,986 BRCA1 carriers (2,974 individuals with breast cancer and 3,012 unaffected individuals). Five SNPs on 19p13 were associated with breast cancer risk (P trend = 2.3 × 10 9 to P trend = 3.9 × 10 7), two of which showed independent associations (rs8170, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.35; rs2363956 HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.89). Genotyping these SNPs in 6,800 population-based breast cancer cases and 6,613 controls identified a similar association with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (rs2363956 per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.92, P trend = 0.0003) and an association with estrogen receptor-positive disease in the opposite direction (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, P trend = 0.016). The five SNPs were also associated with triple-negative breast cancer in a separate study of 2,301 triple-negative cases and 3,949 controls (Ptrend = 1 × 10 7 to P trend = 8 × 10 5; rs2363956 per-allele OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P trend = 1.1 × 10 7). © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Antoniou A.C.,University of Cambridge | Beesley J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | McGuffog L.,University of Cambridge | Sinilnikova O.M.,University of Lyon | And 193 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10-11 - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. ©2010 AACR.

Bertuccio P.,Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Bertuccio P.,University of Milan | La Vecchia C.,Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | La Vecchia C.,University of Milan | And 31 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Cigarette smoking is the best-characterized risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, data are limited for other tobacco smoking products and smokeless tobacco. Materials and methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of cigar and pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from 11 case-control studies (6056 cases and 11 338 controls) within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Pooled odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional multiple logistic regression models adjusted for study center and selected covariates. Results: Compared with never tobacco users, the OR for cigar-only smokers was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3), i.e. comparable to that of cigarette-only smokers (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.6). The OR was 1.1 (95% CI 0.69-1.6) for pipeonly smokers. There was some evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of cigar smoked per day (OR 1.82 for ≥ 10 grams of tobacco), although not with duration. The OR for ever smokeless tobacco users as compared with never tobacco users was 0.98 (95% CI 0.75-1.3). Conclusion: This collaborative analysis provides evidence that cigar smoking is associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, while no significant association emerged for pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Vaidya J.S.,University College London | Baum M.,University College London | Tobias J.S.,University College London | Wenz F.,University of Mannheim | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: We have previously shown that delivering targeted radiotherapy to the tumour bed intraoperatively is feasible and desirable. In this study, we report on the feasibility, safety, and long-term efficacy of TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (Targit), using the Intrabeam system. Methods and Materials: A total of 300 cancers in 299 unselected patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and Targit as a boost to the tumor bed. After lumpectomy, a single dose of 20 Gy was delivered intraoperatively. Postoperative external beam whole-breast radiotherapy excluded the usual boost. We also performed a novel individualized case control (ICC) analysis that computed the expected recurrences for the cohort by estimating the risk of recurrence for each patient using their characteristics and follow-up period. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. The median follow up was 60.5 months (range, 10-122 months). Eight patients have had ipsilateral recurrence: 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate for ipsilateral recurrence is 1.73% (SE 0.77), which compares well with that seen in the boosted patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study (4.3%) and the UK STAndardisation of breast RadioTherapy study (2.8%). In a novel ICC analysis of 242 of the patients, we estimated that there should be 11.4 recurrences; in this group, only 6 recurrences were observed. Conclusions: Lumpectomy and Targit boost combined with external beam radiotherapy results in a low local recurrence rate in a standard risk patient population. Accurate localization and the immediacy of the treatment that has a favorable effect on tumour microenvironment may contribute to this effect. These long-term data establish the long-term safety and efficacy of the Targit technique and generate the hypothesis that Targit boost might be superior to an external beam boost in its efficacy and justifies a randomized trial. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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