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Martini M.,University of Pisa | Martini M.,Centro Interdipartimentale Of Ricerca Nutraceutica E Alimentazione Per La Salute | Altomonte I.,Centro Of Ricerche Agro Ambientali Enrico Avanzi | Manica E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Salari F.,Centro Of Ricerche Agro Ambientali Enrico Avanzi
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

In this study the fatty acid profile and morphometric characteristics of fat globules in Amiata donkey milk in relation to the lactation phase and production season have been evaluated. Individual donkey milk samplings were carried out monthly starting from day 30 of lactation until day 300. The amount of fat and the diameter of the milk fat globules were fairly stable during lactation, whereas the number of globules/mL of milk decreased significantly only in the last phase of lactation. The fatty acid composition showed only few changes during lactation, which consisted in a progressive decrease in the short chain fatty acids and an increasing trend in the monounsaturated fatty acids. Winter milk showed a significantly larger average diameter, a lower number of fat globules/mL, lower (P<. 0.01) percentages of short-chain saturated fatty acids and more (P<. 0.01) long-chain and monounsaturated fatty acids. In addition, significantly lower percentages of C18:0 and higher of palmitoleic, oleic and vaccenic acids were detected in the cooler season. In conclusion the lipid fraction of donkey milk did not show notable changes during lactation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Martini M.,University of Pisa | Altomonte I.,Centro Of Ricerche Agro Ambientali Enrico Avanzi | Salari F.,Centro Of Ricerche Agro Ambientali Enrico Avanzi | Caroli A.M.,University of Brescia
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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