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Docimo T.,National Research Council Italy | Docimo T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Francese G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura Crea Ort | De Palma M.,National Research Council Italy | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Color, taste, flavor, nutritional value, and shelf life are important factors determining quality and healthiness of food and vegetables. These factors are strongly affected by browning processes, occurring after fruit or vegetable cutting. Characterization of ten eggplant genotypes for chlorogenic acid (CGA) content, total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, and browning tendency corroborated a lack of significant correlations between biochemical factors and fruit flesh browning. Further in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses of two divergent eggplant genetic lines, AM199 (high browning) and AM086 (low browning), within 30 min from cutting, highlighted differences in the physiological mechanisms underlying the browning process. qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct activation mechanisms of CGA biosynthetic and PPO genes in the two genetic lines. Metabolic data on CGA, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents confirmed that their different browning tendency matched with different metabolic responses to cutting. Our findings suggest that the complex mechanism of flesh browning in the two eggplant genetic lines might be mediated by multiple specific factors. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Bombarely A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Moser M.,University of Bern | Amrad A.,University of Bern | Bao M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 53 more authors.
Nature Plants | Year: 2016

Petunia hybrida is a popular bedding plant that has a long history as a genetic model system. We report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of inbred derivatives of its two wild parents, P. axillaris N and P. inflata S6. The assemblies include 91.3% and 90.2% coverage of their diploid genomes (1.4 Gb; 2n = 14) containing 32,928 and 36,697 protein-coding genes, respectively. The genomes reveal that the Petunia lineage has experienced at least two rounds of hexaploidization: the older gamma event, which is shared with most Eudicots, and a more recent Solanaceae event that is shared with tomato and other solanaceous species. Transcription factors involved in the shift from bee to moth pollination reside in particularly dynamic regions of the genome, which may have been key to the remarkable diversity of floral colour patterns and pollination systems. The high-quality genome sequences will enhance the value of Petunia as a model system for research on unique biological phenomena such as small RNAs, symbiosis, self-incompatibility and circadian rhythms. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Parisi M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura Crea Ort | Di Dato F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura Crea Ort | Ricci S.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura Crea Ort | Mennella G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura Crea Ort | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2015

Landraces are an important resource for crop breeding, due to their resilience and content of quality traits. However, genetic and phenotypic variability needs to be carefully characterized for proper direct and indirect use. In the present study, a multidisciplinary approach was carried out to assess the Italian sweet pepper landrace ‘Friariello’. A total of 18 traditional accessions were compared with five hybrids and two ecotypes with similar fruit typology. Genetic and morpho-agronomic characterization allowed us to distinguish five different group types of ‘Friariello’. Accessions showing two/three lobes at the blossom end of the fruit were found to be the most productive, whereas the genotypes showing one/two lobes at the blossom end were the most homogeneous. A total of 167 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the collection analysed. Moreover, of the 37 targeted VOCs, 29 showed significant differences in content among the pepper genotypes studied. Of such VOCs related to main flavours described for pepper in the literature, ten were found to be the major determinants of variability among the derived ‘Friariello’ groups. A slightly negative, albeit not significant, correlation was observed between ascorbic acid (AsA) content and agronomic traits, suggesting a better quality for less productive accessions, but also the possibility to improve yield without significantly reducing the AsA levels. The approach used allowed us to define how the different typologies can be used for different breeding purposes, integrating the peculiar properties in order to establish a desirable landrace ideotype. Furthermore, valuable sources for improving quality traits in pepper breeding were identified. Copyright © NIAB 2015

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