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Cardi T.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura | Neal Stewart C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2016

Transgene integration in plants is based on illegitimate recombination between non-homologous sequences. The low control of integration site and number of (trans/cis)gene copies might have negative consequences on the expression of transferred genes and their insertion within endogenous coding sequences. The first experiments conducted to use precise homologous recombination for gene integration commenced soon after the first demonstration that transgenic plants could be produced. Modern transgene targeting categories used in plant biology are: (a) homologous recombination-dependent gene targeting; (b) recombinase-mediated site-specific gene integration; (c) oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis; (d) nuclease-mediated site-specific genome modifications. New tools enable precise gene replacement or stacking with exogenous sequences and targeted mutagenesis of endogeneous sequences. The possibility to engineer chimeric designer nucleases, which are able to target virtually any genomic site, and use them for inducing double-strand breaks in host DNA create new opportunities for both applied plant breeding and functional genomics. CRISPR is the most recent technology available for precise genome editing. Its rapid adoption in biological research is based on its inherent simplicity and efficacy. Its utilization, however, depends on available sequence information, especially for genome-wide analysis. We will review the approaches used for genome modification, specifically those for affecting gene integration and modification in higher plants. For each approach, the advantages and limitations will be noted. We also will speculate on how their actual commercial development and implementation in plant breeding will be affected by governmental regulations. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Di Cesare L.F.,C.R.A. I.A.A. | Migliori C.,C.R.A. I.A.A. | Viscardi D.,C.R.A. I.A.A. | Parisi M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura
Italian Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

The influence of different levels of nitrogen (N1, N2), phosphorous (P1, P2) and N+P (N1P1, N1P2, N2P1, N2P2) mixed fertilizers was investigated on volatile substances, soluble sugars, organic acids, titratable acidity, dry matter and lycopene of "Corbarino" cherry-like tomatoes. The flavour volatiles reached the highest concentrations in red-ripe cherry-like tomatoes treated with N1. Glucose, fructose, dry matter and titratable acidity increased only in N+P fertilized samples. Among the organic acids, citric increased, malic decreased and oxalic was constant in all the fertilized samples. Lycopene reached the highest values in N2 and N2P2 samples. Source


Ghiani A.,University of Milan Bicocca | D'Agostino N.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura | Citterio S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Raiola A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4). We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa), one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa); both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii) in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato. © 2016 Ghiani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Scotti R.,University of Naples Federico II | Scotti R.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura | D'Ascoli R.,The Second University of Naples | Gonzalez Caceres M.,University of Naples Federico II | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2015

Intensive agricultural systems negatively affect soil quality principally because of a reduction in soil organic matter (OM). Sustainable practices providing organic amendments could be useful to maintain or increase OM content in agricultural soils, preserving and improving soil fertility. In this study, biomass with a large C:N ratio was applied to intensively farmed agricultural soils to maximize the increase of soil OM and hence chemical and biochemical fertility. In particular, 30 and 60 t ha-1 of two mixtures of compost and scraps from poplar pruning, A1 and A2, with different C:N ratios (15 and 25, respectively), were applied to soils of two farms (F1 and F2) in a Mediterranean area (southern Italy) on an annual basis for two consecutive years. An effective, long-lasting increase of soil OM, on average of 60 and 55% in F1 and F2 soils, respectively, was reached at the end of the experiment. As well as a progressive increase in the C:N ratio, total N and available P also increased with organic amendments, with positive effects on soil microbial activity as demonstrated by the enhancement of the seven studied enzymatic activities. Principal component analysis demonstrated different responses to various organic amendments between F1 and F2 soils because of their geopedological diversity. The results indicate that the C:N ratio of the mixture is an important factor, but what is the best rate of addition to use is still not obvious. The use of a smaller amount (30 t ha-1) of the A1 mixture (10:1 compost:wood) appears, in these types of soils, to be the most suitable strategy to produce significant benefits. © 2015 British Society of Soil Science. Source


Nendel C.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Venezia A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura | Piro F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lorticoltura | Ren T.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2013

The EU-Rotate-N model was developed as a tool to estimate the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake of vegetable crop rotations across a wide range of European climatic conditions and to assess the economic and environmental consequences of alternative management strategies. The model has been evaluated under field conditions in Germany and Norway and under greenhouse conditions in China. The present work evaluated the model using Italian data to evaluate its performance in a warm and dry environment. Data were collected from four 2-year field rotations, which included lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) and white cabbage (B. oleracea convar. capitata var. alba L.); each rotation used three different rates of N fertilizer (average recommended N1, assumed farmer's practice N2=N1+0·3×N1 and a zero control N0). Although the model was not calibrated prior to running the simulations, results for above-ground dry matter biomass, crop residue biomass, crop N concentration and crop N uptake were promising. However, soil mineral N predictions to 0·6 m depth were poor. The main problem with the prediction of the test variables was the poor ability to capture N mineralization in some autumn periods and an inappropriate parameterization of fennel. In conclusion, the model performed well, giving results comparable with other bio-physical process simulation models, but for more complex crop rotations. The model has the potential for application in Mediterranean environments for field vegetable production. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source

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