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Vitalini S.,University of Milan | Madeo M.,University of Milan Bicocca | Tava A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | Iriti M.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016

Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS? + and DPPH? radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This.


Tidona F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | Charfi I.,École de Technologie Supérieure of Montreal | Povolo M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | Pelizzola V.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Sunflower oil was added to donkey milk to increase the low energetic intake and improve both texture and healthy characteristics. This milk-based emulsion was fermented using a binary association of two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showing distinctive abilities. One strain (St 907) produced ropy exopolysaccharide (EPS), whereas the other strain (St 563) produced folic acid. Fermentation was stopped at pH 5.0 to prevent whey separation. The refrigerated product was stable at least for 20 days and showed improved viscoelastic properties due to the EPS combined with the oil droplets. The volatile profile was constituted of ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and fatty acids, mainly originated from microbial fermentation, whereas few other compounds suggested the presence of oxidative processes. The folic acid content in the fermented beverage was increased by more than 10 times (2.03 ± 0.17 μg/100 mL) with respect to that found in donkey milk (0.16 ± 0.03 μg/100 mL). An emulsion based on donkey milk and sunflower oil (1.6% v/v) was fermented by two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showing distinctive abilities, i.e. the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and folates. A controlled fermentation was carried out to obtain a stable product for 20 days, showing improved viscoelastic properties and an increased folic acid content. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2015 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Pecetti L.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | Mella M.,University of Pavia | Tava A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study assessed the variation in herbage protein and fiber content as well as concentration of furocoumarins, plicatin B, (E)-werneria chromene, and pterocarpans of pitch trefoil (Bituminaria bituminosa) germplasm sampled in situ in both summer and autumn in Elba Island, Italy. Populations were sampled from a range of climatic and edaphic conditions, on light soils with pH > 7.5. Valuable variation occurred for forage quality and chemical composition. The quality features, relevant for a possible forage utilization of the species, were promising for the leaves, which represented about two-thirds of the total aerial biomass in early summer and the whole green regrowth in autumn. The species can also represent a source of psoralen, angelicin, plicatin B, bitucarpin A, and erybraedin C for possible pharmaceutical and/or agrochemical use, with individual populations showing high levels of these compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Abeni F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc | Galli A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15–84 DIM), around peak (85–154 DIM), and plateau (155–224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer. © 2016 ISB


PubMed | Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie Crea Flc
Type: | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49% (early) to 45% (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60% of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9% (for RTt) to 54.8% (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

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