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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Paleari L.,University of Milan | Cappelli G.,University of Milan | Bregaglio S.,University of Milan | Acutis M.,University of Milan | And 7 more authors.
Climatic Change

Using crop models as supporting tools for analyzing the interaction between genotype and environment represents an opportunity to identify priorities within breeding programs. This study represents the first attempt to use simulation models to define rice ideotypes improved for their resistance to biotic stressors (i.e., diseases); moreover, it extends approaches for evaluating the impact of changes in traits for tolerance to abiotic constraints (temperature shocks inducing sterility). The analysis—targeting the improvement of 34 varieties in six Italian rice districts—was focused on the impact of blast disease, and of pre-flowering cold- and heat-induced spikelet sterility. In silico ideotypes were tested at 5-km spatial resolution under current conditions and climate change scenarios centered on 2020, 2050, and 2085, derived according to the projections of two general circulation models–Hadley and NCAR–for two IPCC emission scenarios–A1B and B1. The study was performed using a dedicated simulation platform, i.e., ISIde, explicitly developed for ideotyping studies. The ideotypes improved for blast resistance obtained clear yield increases for all the combinations GCM × emission scenario × time horizon, i.e., 12.1 % average yield increase under current climate, although slightly decreasing for time windows approaching the end of the century and with a marked spatial heterogeneity in responses across districts. Concerning abiotic stressors, increasing tolerance to cold-induced sterility would lead to a substantial yield increase (+9.8 %) only for Indica-type varieties under current climate, whereas no increases are expected under future conditions and, in general, for Japonica-type varieties. Given the process-based logic behind the models used—supporting coherence of model responses under future scenarios—this study provides useful information for rice breeding programs to be realized in the medium-long term. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

Duca D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Toscano G.,Marche Polytechnic University | Riva G.,Marche Polytechnic University | Mengarelli C.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

The first generation biofuels still have the role of leader in global production of biofuels. In Europe biodiesel is produced mostly from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. oleifera Metzg) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The EU policy is giving attention to the valorization of residues deriving also from those chains. The present work had the objective of evaluating the quality of residues deriving from biodiesel chains based on rapeseed and sunflower crops as well as on other interesting crops in the Mediterranean area, such as Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.). For this purpose an energetic characterization of straws, hulls and press cakes were performed following the official technical normative, as well as the evaluation of their energetic potential. The energy content of residues resulted to be interesting and their quality compatible in general with an energetic use. Crop residues seem to have the most energy potential in quantitative terms, and their exploitation can improve the energy balance of first generation biodiesel production chain improving their sustainability. Concerning quality, crop residues should be employed in medium-large sized plants to limit problems related to plant management and emissions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wagner A.E.,University of Kiel | Sturm C.,University of Kiel | Piegholdt S.,University of Kiel | Wolf I.M.A.,University of Kiel | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

In this study, the effect of myrosinase-treated glucoerucin (GER+MYR), which releases the isothiocyanate (ITC) erucin, on heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene expression and Nrf2 signaling was investigated in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mice. Treatment of HT-29 cells with GER+MYR resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1. GER+MYR was more potent at enhancing the nuclear Nrf2 levels than were the following myrosinase-treated glucosinolates: sinigrin, glucoraphanin and gluconasturtiin, which are the precursors of allyl-ITC, R-sulforaphane and 2-phenylethyl ITC, respectively. GER+MYR also significantly induced HO-1 gene expression in the mouse intestinal mucosae and liver but not in the brain. Mechanistic studies suggest that GER+MYR induces Nrf2 via ERK1/2-, p38- and JNK-dependent signal transduction pathways. The GER+MYR-mediated increase in HO-1 expression is primarily attributable to p38 signaling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Del Gatto A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | Melilli M.G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | Raccuia S.A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | Pieri S.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | And 6 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

The Extravalore project aims to give added value to oilseed crops, considering them also for producing multiple products with the same economic value and being interesting for the market thanks to their various utilizations.An evaluation of the main cultivars of Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Brassica carinata has been performed within the project, analyzing them in three Italian locations with different climatic conditions (Palazzolo dello Stella - North Italy, Osimo - Central Italy, Cassibile - South Italy) to assay their adaptability and production potential.During the 2010-2013 period, 43 varieties of rapeseed were evaluated, but only 13 of them for all the period considered; moreover, also 4 varieties of B. carinata were tested.The seed yields of tested cultivars of rapeseed varied a lot among locations, depending also by the seasonal trend. Central Italy was the less disadvantaged by climatic conditions: on average, it was reached a seed yield of 4tha-1, a theoretical oil production of 1.63tha-1 and more than 8tha-1 of crop residues. In Northern and Southern Italy, if compared with Central Italy values, the seed yields were both lower than 30% and theoretical oil productions lower than 60%; moreover, crop residues in Northern Italy were 12% lower than in Central Italy while in Southern Italy 65% lower. The agronomic behavior of varieties differed a lot among the three experimental areas: DK Expower was the best at North; Albatros, Artoga, Exagone and Excalibur in Central Italy; Excalibur, Zoom and PR46W14 at South Italy but none of them reached a seed yield of 2tha-1.Concerning B. carinata, the cultivars did not give good productions in any of the experimental areas, mainly because of the low oil content in the seeds. Even in Central Italy, where the best results were registered, the seed yield was on average 28% lower than in rapeseed and oil production 10% lower; the crop residues were double than rapeseed. In any case, the valorization of the crop residues is important with a wide range of possible utilization from the direct energetic use to the biochemicals extraction with consequent environmental advantages due to the substitution of dedicated or fossil feedstock with crop residues. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Del Gatto A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Colture Industriali | Mengarelli C.,Marche Polytechnic University | Foppa Pedretti E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Duca D.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

Currently the biodiesel chain is promoted by the European energy policy. For the Italian scenario the sunflower is one of the most important crop to be considered for biodiesel production but the chain is not fully profitable. This problem could be solved with the increase of farm incomes through a proper valorization of by-products. From this point of view the oilseed crop is not considered only for oil production but also for producing multiple products with the same economic value. This is the main inspiring concept of the Extravalore project. The sub-project "Raw Materials" investigated about the possible influence of different agro-technics performed in three distinct geographical environments (Northern, Central and Southern Italy) on the characteristics of by-products obtained from sunflower crop.A national net of experimental tests was set during the 2010-2013 period in order to evaluate the adaptability and the potential production of high oleic sunflower hybrids. 7 seed companies supplied the 20 genotypes assessed in total (18 high oleic hybrids and 2 as control), 11 of them were evaluated all the three years.Achene yields of tested high oleic hybrids were extremely variable: from 2.05tha-1 to 4.04tha-1 in Northern Italy, from 2.50tha-1 to 4.24tha-1 in Central Italy and from 2.09tha-1 to 2.68tha-1 in Southern Italy. For this reason, it was necessary a precise characterization of varieties before their cultivation. The cultivar screening showed general difficulty for high oleic hybrids to reach the performances of achene and oil yields of the conventional ones. In particular, LG55.57HO and PR64H31 resulted the best high oleic cultivars for Northern Italy; many of the high oleic tested cultivars performed well for Central Italy and also for Southern Italy but with a higher variability. The highest potential production was registered in Central Italy; Northern Italy gave decreased but similar results, despite the different latitude; in Southern Italy the productions were 20-30% lower, even with the irrigation support. All high oleic tested cultivars showed oleic acid content in lipid fraction always above the 84% in Central Italy, meaning a stability of the character, very important for the biodiesel production. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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