Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp

Firenze, Italy

Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp

Firenze, Italy
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Redolfi De Zan L.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Redolfi De Zan L.,Third University of Rome | Redolfi De Zan L.,Cfs Centro Nazionale Per Lo Studio E La Conservazione Della Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana Of Verona | de Gasperis S.R.,Third University of Rome | And 2 more authors.
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2016

This study explored the hole-nesting bird community for two years, in three beech forest stands of central Italy. Our experimental design involved 12 replicated sampling points in each study area for a total of 36 sampling points. Stand characteristics were measured through selected environmental variables (tree diameter, tree density, volume of dead wood, diversity of dead wood and canopy closure), to develop habitat models for describing the factors affecting the abundance of hole-nesting birds. We performed generalized linear models to determine which environmental variables better explained the presence and abundance of hole-nesting birds in the three study areas. The species that showed the highest values of abundance are the Nuthatch, the Blue Tit and the Great Tit. Within the guild of hole-nesting birds there are differences in the selection of suitable trees for nesting, roosting or foraging. Primary cavity nesters (woodpeckers) are mostly related to the presence of large trees, the volume of dead wood and tree height. The presence and abundance of secondary cavity nesters (tits, nuthatches and treecreepers) seem to be mostly influenced by diversity of dead wood. The diversity of dead wood is an important variable that influences the presence and abundance of hole-nesting birds. Maintenance of both living and standing dead wood in forest ecosystems is recommended to increase the effectiveness of conservation actions affecting the hole-nesting birds. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Dallai R.,University of Siena | Paoli F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Mercati D.,University of Siena | Lupetti P.,University of Siena
Tissue and Cell | Year: 2016

The ancestral eukaryotes presumably had an MTOC (microtubule organizing center) which late gave origin to the centriole and the flagellar axoneme.The centrosome of insect early spermatids is in general composed of two components: a single centriole and a cloud of electron-dense pericentriolar material (PCM). During spermiogenesis, the centriole changes its structure and gives rise to a flagellar axoneme, while the proteins of PCM, gamma tubulin in particular, are involved in the production of microtubules for the elongation and shaping of spermatid components. At the end of spermiogenesis, in many insects, additional material is deposited beneath the nucleus to form the centriole adjunct (ca). This material can also extend along the flagellum in two accessory bodies (ab) flanking the axoneme.Among Homoptera Sternorrhyncha, a progressive modification of their sperm flagella until complete disappearance has been verified. In the Archaeococcidae Matsucoccus feytaudi, however, a motile sperm flagellum-like structure is formed by an MTOC activity. This finding gives support to the hypothesis that an evolutionary reversal has occurred in the group and that the cell, when a non-functional centriole is present, activates an ancestral structure, an MTOC, to form a polarized motile bundle of microtubules restoring sperm motility.The presence and extension of the centriole adjunct in the different insect orders is also enlisted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Sgolastra F.,University of Bologna | Fisogni A.,University of Bologna | Quaranta M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Bogo G.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2016

Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the seasonal and daily activities of flower-visiting insects, which, ultimately, influence the composition and abundance of a pollinator community and the extent of their pollination service. The aim of this four-year study was to assess the effect of some abiotic and biotic factors on the abundance and activity pattern of flower-visiting insects throughout the blooming of a locally rare plant species, Dictamnus albus L. (Rutaceae). We found a large inter-annual variation in the abundance and activity of flower visitors, with up to a six-fold variation in the total number of individual insects observed. Moreover, a similar fluctuation among years was also highlighted by biodiversity indices and by the changes in the relative frequency of each flower-visiting taxon. Annual, seasonal and daily variations were explained by a certain level of “response diversity” between flower-visiting taxa in relation to different environmental conditions during D. albus blooming. The foraging activity was related to ambient temperature in the tribe of Halictini and to relative humidity in four flower-visiting taxa (positive relation in the tribe Anthophorini; negative relation in the taxa Megachilini, Halictini and Syrphidae). The climate conditions during the winter might have also affected the phenology and the abundance of flower-visiting taxa with a large number of insects observed in warmer years. Among the biotic factors, flower availability did not affect the abundance of insects observed in the patch. Moreover, we did not find any significant negative associations (e.g. possible competition) in the co-occurrence of different flower visiting taxa, instead we found six significant positive associations probably related to similar preferences towards specific environmental conditions. In conclusion, our results show that the flower visitor community of D. albus is quite variable among years, seasons and daily hours, but the relative high visitor diversity and the different patterns of activity related to different environmental responses might guarantee a stable pollination service of this plant species in years with extreme environmental conditions. © 2016, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies. All rights reserved.


Chiellini C.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Mocali S.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Fani R.,University of Florence | Ferro I.,Instituto De Angeli S.R.L. Pharma Division Localita Prulli | Pinzani A.,Instituto De Angeli S.R.L. Pharma Division Localita Prulli
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2016

Commercially available lyophilized microbial standards are expensive and subject to reduction in cell viability due to freeze-drying stress. Here we introduce an inexpensive and straightforward method for in-house microbial standard preparation and cryoconservation that preserves constant cell titre and cell viability over 14 months. © 2016.


Valboa G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Lagomarsino A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Brandi G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Agnelli A.E.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | And 4 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

Tillage practices have a major effect on soil C storage and cropping sustainability, due to their impact on soil aggregation, organic residue decomposition rate, OC dynamics, microbial abundance and diversity, N mineralization and nutrient availability. Our research was aimed at assessing the long term effects of different tillage treatments on soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality and its evolution with time, in a loam textured-soil from central Italy cultivated with continuous maize. The tillage treatments included a conventional tillage (DP) by mouldboard ploughing to 40. cm depth, a ripper subsoiling (RS) to 40-45. cm, a shallow tillage by mouldboard ploughing to 20. cm depth (SP) and minimum tillage to 10. cm by disk harrowing (DH). The soil was sampled in 1999 and 2011 (after 5 and 17 years from the beginning of the trial, respectively), at depth increments of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40. cm and analysed for total organic C (TOC), OC recalcitrant and labile fractions by chemical hydrolysis, total N, bulk density, aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity.After 17 year of treatments, the different tillage systems did not affect the overall amount of OC stored in a 0-40. cm equivalent soil mass; nevertheless, they produced significant differences in soil OC vertical distribution along the soil profile and OC recalcitrance. Both DH and RS increased soil TOC in the surface layer, with predominance of labile OC under DH and recalcitrant OC under RS. Differently, DP caused a net loss of recalcitrant OC, probably due to a detrimental impact on soil aggregate stability and, subsequently, on SOM physical protection. RS showed the largest potential for OC sequestration in stable form in the considered agroecosystem. © 2015.


Paoli F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Roversi P.F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | Mercati D.,University of Siena | Marziali L.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp | And 2 more authors.
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2015

The ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in four species of Coccoidea, namely Quadraspidiotus perniciosus and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Diaspididae), as well as Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Pseudococcidae), is described. Similarly to other coccids, during spermiogenesis sperm nuclei elongate towards the plasma membrane, forming a conical papilla. The microtubule bundles surrounding the nucleus subsequently elongate and a mature sperm is formed. At the end of spermiogenesis, the motile sperm of all the species consists of a cylindrical axial nucleus surrounded by a spiral (Q. perniciosus) or by concentric rings of microtubules (P. pentagona, P. citri and P. ficus) forming a peculiar flagellum. Other features common to all these species are the lack of centrioles, acrosome and mitochondria in the spermatid and mature sperm. Differences arise in the number of spermatid cells per cyst (32 in Q. perniciosus and 16 in the other three species) and in the number and arrangement of microtubules forming the flagellum. Details on the origin of the flagellum and on the formation of the secondary sheath of the sperm bundle are provided. Lastly, the evolution of the Coccid group is discussed from a phylogenetic perspective based on sperm ultrastructure. © 2015.


PubMed | Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia Crea Abp and University of Siena
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tissue & cell | Year: 2016

The ancestral eukaryotes presumably had an MTOC (microtubule organizing center) which late gave origin to the centriole and the flagellar axoneme. The centrosome of insect early spermatids is in general composed of two components: a single centriole and a cloud of electron-dense pericentriolar material (PCM). During spermiogenesis, the centriole changes its structure and gives rise to a flagellar axoneme, while the proteins of PCM, gamma tubulin in particular, are involved in the production of microtubules for the elongation and shaping of spermatid components. At the end of spermiogenesis, in many insects, additional material is deposited beneath the nucleus to form the centriole adjunct (ca). This material can also extend along the flagellum in two accessory bodies (ab) flanking the axoneme. Among Homoptera Sternorrhyncha, a progressive modification of their sperm flagella until complete disappearance has been verified. In the Archaeococcidae Matsucoccus feytaudi, however, a motile sperm flagellum-like structure is formed by an MTOC activity. This finding gives support to the hypothesis that an evolutionary reversal has occurred in the group and that the cell, when a non-functional centriole is present, activates an ancestral structure, an MTOC, to form a polarized motile bundle of microtubules restoring sperm motility. The presence and extension of the centriole adjunct in the different insect orders is also enlisted.

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