Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale

Rome, Italy

Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale

Rome, Italy
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Ilardi V.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Tavazza M.,UTAGRI Centro Ricerche Casaccia
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants. © 2015 Hardi and Tavazza.


Hadidi A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Flores R.,Technical University Valencia Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Candresse T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Barba M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology. © 2016 Hadidi, Flores, Candresse and Barba.


PubMed | UTAGRI Centro Ricerche Casaccia and Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants.


La Torre A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Caradonia F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Matere A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Battaglia V.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

We assessed the use of essential oils in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Clove oil, thyme oil, rosemary oil and their major components, as well as the two commercial products, Bioxeda (based on clove oil) and Sporatec (containing rosemary oil, clove oil and thyme oil) were assessed in vitro and in a greenhouse pot trial. The in vitro tests consisted of evaluating the development of fungal colonies on agar medium supplemented with the tested products (i.e., the oils, their major component, and Bioxeda and Sporatec) at various concentrations. In addition, the percentage of conidia germination was determined after using the products at different concentrations. The greenhouse trial was carried out on 5-week-old tomato seedlings cv. Cuore di Bue di Albenga. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into pots containing pasteurized soil after the roots had been dipped in a conidial suspension of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Immediately after transplanting, the treatments were carried out in the soil surrounding the roots of tomato plants with essential oils at various concentrations. Control treatments were also carried out. In vitro tests showed that almost all the investigated products were able to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination. The best results were obtained with clove oil and its major component eugenol. Rosemary oil showed the lowest inhibitory activity. Greenhouse pot experiments indicated that all the tested products were able to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato. The best results were obtained with clove oil, however rosemary oil was also effective in controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The performance of the essential oils was lower than the performance of the reference product. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Rongai D.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Pulcini P.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Pesce B.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Milano F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used in folk medicine for many centuries. This paper describes the in vitro antifungal activity of pomegranate peel aqueous extract (pae) on the development of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum, f. sp. lycopersici. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis was performed to identify punicalagins and ellagic acid, which are the main antifungal compounds. In vivo tests established the efficacy of pae treatments in controlling Fusarium wilt by evaluating improvements in growth variables of tomato plants. At high concentrations, pae showed allelopathic activity in tomato plants. The germination and the radicle growth of tomato seeds were significantly affected by pae. Increasing the extract concentration led to a progressive decrease in germination and in the length of the radicle. The reduction of the Fusarium population in soil and the increase in number of healthy plants obtained as a result of pae treatments indicate that this plant extract could have an important role in biologically-based management strategies for the control of Fusarium wilt in tomato crops. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging


Menesatti P.,Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura | Antonucci F.,Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura | Costa C.,Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura | Mandala C.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | And 2 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2013

Aim of this study was to develop a forecasting model for Plasmopara viticola to achieve rational disease management and to reduce the use of copper treatments in organic farming. Starting from meteo-climatic, agronomic and phytopathological data a partial least squares discriminant analysis was developed. Three different strategies were compared: treatments according to the established organic agricultural practice (standard); treatments according to the predictive model and untreated control where no fungicides against downy mildew were applied. The modelling approach was divided into three phases: 1) model calibration; 2) field testing and 3) a posteriori model performance evaluation. The prediction was separately considered and modelled for: i) disease onset and ii) disease progress. The results for phase 1 show a percentage of correct classification equal to 91.8 % for the disease onset with 3 days elapsed between the prediction of first potential attack and disease onset and to 91.23 % for disease progress. In field testing phase the percentage of correct classification was equal to about 81 % for both the analysed years (2009 and 2010). In the phase 3 the percentages were quietly higher for the 2009. The number of fungicide applications on the partial least squares discriminant analysis model was almost half compared with standard schedule both in 2009 and 2010. Finally this approach showed the possibility to reduce fungicidal treatments and to avoid applying copper not essential for disease control representing a first step in the model validation.


PubMed | Washington State University, Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale and South Australian Research And Development Institute
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma species and the possible use of a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for their classification. The metabolic features of 45 strains including 11 known species isolated from various legumes were extracted, and the datasets were analyzed using chemometrics methods such as principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses. We found a high degree of intra-species consistency in metabolic profiles, but inter-species diversity was high. Molecular phylogenies of the legume-associated Ascochyta/Phoma species were estimated using sequence data from three protein-coding genes and the five major chemical groups that were detected in the hierarchical clustering analysis were mapped to the phylogeny. Clusters based on similarity of metabolic features were largely congruent with the species phylogeny. These results indicated that evolutionarily distinct fungal lineages have diversified their metabolic capacities as they have evolved independently. This whole metabolomics approach may be an effective tool for chemotaxonomy of fungal taxa lacking information on their metabolic content.


PubMed | Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
Type: | Journal: Natural product research | Year: 2016

In recent years, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants as low-risk fungicides has increased considerably owing to their interest with organic growers and environmentally conscious consumers. The proposed method, based upon liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, is suitable for monitoring main components of EOs on zucchini fruits after protection treatments to control crop disease. The aim of this work is to find a rapid, simple and cheap procedure for screening analysis such as quality control of crops edible portion.


PubMed | Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilisers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European Member States. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one Member State to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives.


La Torre A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Battaglia V.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale | Caradonia F.,Centro Of Ricerca Per La Patologia Vegetale
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilisers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European Member States. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one Member State to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

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