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Palmisano F.,Centro Of Ricerca E Sperimentazione In Agricoltura Basile Caramia | Bazzoni A.,University of Bari | Tavano D.,University of Bari | Didonna A.,University of Bari | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

This work presents the results of an evaluation trial of the apricot cross 'Harcot' × 'Reale d'Imola' for resistance to Plum pox virus (M and D strains). An improved protocol developed at the Department of Plant Protection and Applied Microbiology of the University of Bari was applied. The sequential steps of the protocol are: 1) bud grafting onto myrobalan and Prunus persica GF305; 2) chip-bud inoculation onto the rootstocks with known isolates of PPV-M and PPV-D; 3) visual inspections on rootstock and apricot for leaf symptoms expression; 4) testing by ELISA and RT-PCR. The protocols provide for the observation of the seedlings until the fruiting stage. The results of four vegetative cycles after the inoculation demonstrate that: a) most of the seedlings (42%) of the cross 'Harcot' × 'Reale d'Imola' showed symptoms and were ELISA-positive from the first vegetative cycle after inoculation, and only a few seedlings were asymptomatic and ELISA negative. However, during the second and third vegetative cycles, a greater number of seedlings infected with PPV-D strain were asymptomatic and ELISA-negative (25.64%); b) PPV-M isolate induced more severe reactions in the plants; c) the opportunity to confirm the results already obtained by using molecular test; d) the results about the parents confirmed what referred in the literature: 'Harcot' was resistant also to PPV-M strain, while 'Reale d'Imola' was susceptible to both PPV strains; e) the myrobalan revealed to be an effective indicator, showing symptoms since the first visual inspections at two-three weeks after sprouting.

Bazzoni A.,University of Bari | Tavano D.,University of Bari | Didonna A.,University of Bari | Savino V.,University of Bari | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV; genus Trichovirus; family Flexiviridae), one of the main viruses affecting fruit trees, can cause heavy losses to the yield of plum, prune, and apricot. For instance, virulent ACLSV strains are known to elicit severe symptoms on the leaves and fruits of apricot ("butteratura" or "viruela"). To assess the pathogenicity of this virus on a wider range of stone fruits, ten viral isolates from different geographical origins (Italy, Spain, Lebanon and Hungary) that had previously been characterized serologically and molecularly (Alrwahnih et al., 2004) were further evaluated via assays in the field. In September 2003, all isolates were inoculated by chip-budding on two cultivars each of the following Prunus species: apricot ('Cafona' and 'Búlida'), cherry ('Ferrovia' and 'Giorgia'), plum ('Black Amber', 'Florenzia', 'Stanley'), and peach ('Dixired' and 'Cardinal') with six replicates for each isolate-cultivar combination. Negative controls were included in the trial. During the four growing seasons that followed, all trees were assayed by ELISA, and foliar and fruit symptoms were recorded (in the case of fruits, controls were limited to two years). High variability was observed among the ten virus isolates, ranging from latency to induction of severe symptoms. In particular, isolates PE154, from Hungary, and PL112, from Italy, were the most severe as they induced, in both apricot cultivars, symptoms of marked vein clearing and yellow mottling on the leaves, and "butteratura" on the fruits. The isolate PE151 and PL110 caused vein clearing on leaves of the peach cultivar Cardinal, while the isolate APR61 caused yellow spotting on leaves of cvs. Cardinal and Dixired. The PL45 isolate caused heavy vein clearing and deformation on Dixired cultivar. Up to now, no symptoms have been observed on cherry cultivars. Most of the isolates induced discoloration and light deformation on the leaves of both plum cultivars.

Loconsole G.,University of Bari | Saponari M.,CNR Institute of Plant virology | Faggioli F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Albanese G.,University of Reggio Calabria | And 8 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2010

Sanitary selection and certification of olive cultivars require sensitive diagnostic methods and effective sanitation protocols. Although much attention has been paid in the past few years to the development of diagnostic tools for reliable virus identification, the need to define a common and standardized diagnostic protocol led to the implementation of a ring test among nine Italian diagnostic laboratories. A one-step RT-PCR protocol and different primer sets, targeting the most common olive viruses covered by phytosanitary rules, were tested in each laboratory, using the same batch of positive and healthy controls as well as the same amplification conditions and reaction components. The one-step RT-PCR, performed using several specific primer sets, was able efficiently to detect the target viruses in all laboratories. Furthermore, a one-step RT-PCR protocol was used successfully for the first time for detection of Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) and Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV). Results showed that all target viruses were not uniformly distributed in the canopy, and that at least two subsets of samples must be collected from each plant. This standardized protocol is now being used to produce nuclear stocks for 70 different Italian olive cultivars, in the framework of the national project OLVIVA, which involves 25 national research institutions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 OEPP/EPPO.

Dongiovanni C.,Centro Of Ricerca E Sperimentazione In Agricoltura Basile Caramia | Pollastro P.,Centro Of Ricerca E Sperimentazione In Agricoltura Basile Caramia | Catucci L.,Centro Of Ricerca E Sperimentazione In Agricoltura Basile Caramia | Pollastro S.,University of Bari | Faretra F.,University of Bari
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Surveys in grapevine nurseries and in vineyards of Apulia (southern Italy) detected a white bark and wood rot on grapevine propagation material and on standing vines. Mycological analysis and experimental inoculations showed the causal agent to be a Collybia sp. This finding suggests that growers should pay more attention with the sanitary status of grapevine propagation materials.

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