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Spada E.,University of Milan | Canzi I.,University of Milan | Baggiani L.,University of Milan | Perego R.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Stray cats in the city of Milan, Italy, were tested for Leishmania infantum and other selected infections. Twenty-seven cats (30.0%) were seroreactive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), with an antibody titer of 1:40 for 16 (17.7%) cats and 1:80 (cut-off for feline L. infantum infection) for 11 (12.2%) cats. One blood (1.1%) and one popliteal lymph node (1.1%) sample tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction; no oculoconjunctival swabs tested positive. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and feline coronavirus (FCoV) seroprevalence determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 6.1, 6.1, and 39.0%, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella henselae, and Chlamydophila felis prevalence determined by IFAT was 29.3, 17.1, and 17.1%, respectively. The frequency of seroreactivity to L. infantum was significantly higher in FCoV-seropositive cats (OR = 4.4, P = 0.04). L. infantum-infected stray cats in Milan have a high seropositivity rate, comparable to that of cats in areas endemic for leishmaniosis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vitale F.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | Genovese G.,Messina University | Bruno F.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | Castelli G.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | And 5 more authors.
Open Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Leishmaniasis is a disease with a worldwide distribution affecting both humans and animals. There is a need to identify and develop new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This study showed that crude ethanolic extracts of the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis have a powerful effect against L. infantum, the prevalent species of the genus Leishmania in the Mediterranean basin. L. infantum demonstrated decreased vitality with increasing concentration of the algal extracts. At a concentration of 40 μg/mL, the extracts achieved 100% mortality of the parasite and the LD50 value was 25 μg/mL for promastigotes and 9 μg/mL for amastigotes. Algal extracts caused morphological alterations and apoptosis in Leishmania cells. The potential cytotoxic action of crude extracts was investigated by a MTT viability assay on DH82 and Vero cell lines but there was no cytotoxic effect. The potential of red alga A. taxiformis metabolites as anti-leishmanial agents merits further pharmacological investigation. © 2015 Fabrizio Vitale et al., licensee De Gruyter Open. Source


Bruno F.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | Castelli G.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | Migliazzo A.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | Piazza M.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per Le Leishmaniosi Crenal | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2015

Pentadecane is an organic compound that is made up of primarily carbon and hydrogen atoms. Pentadecane is a floral volatile found in many different plants and essential oils and also in crude extracts of some plants, and it shows antimicrobial activity. This study investigated in vitro effects of pentadecane in Leishmania infantum parasites and found that it decreases growth by 86 ± 2% both in promastigotes (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 65.3 μM) and in amastigotes (IC50 = 60.5 μM), resulting in a reduction of macrophage infection; growth inhibition was 77% at 300 μM. Analysis of propidium iodide incorporation in L. infantum, treated with pentadecane at 48 hr, suggested that cells were arresting in the sub-G0/G1 and G1 phases of the cell cycle, whereas cytotoxicity assay of pentadecane in immortalized cells lines DH82 and U937 and in primary epithelial cells of Cercopiteco showed that it caused negligible cytotoxic effect. This study shows that pentadecane has antimicrobial activity against L. infantum parasites in in vitro culture. © American Society of Parasitologists 2015. Source

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