Centro Of Eccellenza Of Genomica In Campo Biomedico Ed Agrario Cegba


Centro Of Eccellenza Of Genomica In Campo Biomedico Ed Agrario Cegba

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Rodriguez A.,University of Navarra | Rodriguez A.,CIBER ISCIII | Gena P.,University of Bari | Mendez-Gimenez L.,University of Navarra | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2014

Background/Objectives:Glycerol represents an important metabolite for the control of lipid accumulation and hepatic gluconeogenesis. We investigated whether hepatic expression and functionality of aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a channel mediating glycerol influx into hepatocytes, is impaired in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) in the context of insulin resistance.Subjects/Methods:Liver biopsies were obtained from 66 morbid obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (66% women, mean body mass index (BMI) 46.1±1.0 kg m-2) with available liver echography and pathology analysis of the biopsies in this cross-sectional study. Subjects were classified according to normoglycemia (NG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hepatic expression of AQP9 was analyzed by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, while glycerol permeability (P gly) was measured by stopped-flow light scattering.Results:AQP9 was the most abundantly (P<0.0001) expressed aquaglyceroporin in human liver (AQP9>>>AQP3>AQP7>AQP10). Obese patients with T2D showed increased plasma glycerol as well as lower P gly and hepatic AQP9 expression. The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in T2D patients was 100 and 65%, respectively. Interestingly, AQP9 expression was decreased in patients with NAFLD and NASH as compared with those without hepatosteatosis, in direct relation to the degree of steatosis and lobular inflammation, being further reduced in insulin-resistant individuals. The association of AQP9 with insulin sensitivity was independent of BMI and age. Consistent with these data, fasting insulin and C-reactive protein contributed independently to 33.1% of the hepatic AQP9 mRNA expression variance after controlling for the effects of age and BMI.Conclusions:AQP9 downregulation together with the subsequent reduction in hepatic glycerol permeability in insulin-resistant states emerges as a compensatory mechanism whereby the liver counteracts further triacylglycerol accumulation within its parenchyma as well as reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis in patients with NAFLD. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Ranieri M.,University of Bari | Tamma G.,University of Bari | Tamma G.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Di Mise A.,University of Bari | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2015

We previously described that high luminal Ca2+ in the renal collecting duct attenuates short-term vasopressin-induced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking through activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here, we evaluated AQP2 phosphorylation and permeability, in both renal HEK-293 cells and in the dissected inner medullary collecting duct, in response to specific activation of CaSR with NPS-R568. In CaSR-transfected cells, CaSR activation drastically reduced the basal levels of AQP2 phosphorylation at S256 (AQP2-pS256), thus having an opposite effect to vasopressin action. When forskolin stimulation was performed in the presence of NPS-R568, the increase in AQP2-pS256 and in the osmotic water permeability were prevented. In the freshly isolated inner mouse medullar collecting duct, stimulation with forskolin in the presence of NPS-R568 prevented the increase in AQP2-pS256 and osmotic water permeability. Our data demonstrate that the activation of CaSR in the collecting duct prevents the cAMP-dependent increase in AQP2-pS256 and water permeability, counteracting the short-term vasopressin response. By extension, our results suggest the attractive concept that CaSR expressed in distinct nephron segments exerts a negative feedback on hormones acting through cAMP, conferring high sensitivity of hormone to extracellular Ca2+. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Tamma G.,University of Bari | Tamma G.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Valenti G.,University of Bari | Valenti G.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Valenti G.,Centro Of Eccellenza Of Genomica In Campo Biomedico Ed Agrario Cegba
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2016

Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been considered as toxic derivatives of aerobic metabolism displaying a harmful effect to living cells. Deregulation of redox homeostasis and production of excessive free radicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In line, oxidative stress increases in patients with renal dysfunctions due to a general increase of ROS paralleled by impaired antioxidant ability. Recent Advances: Emerging evidence revealed that physiologically, ROS can act as signaling molecules interplaying with several transduction pathways such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. ROS can exert signaling functions by modulating, at different layers, protein oxidation since proteins have "cysteine switches" that can be reversibly reduced or oxidized, supporting the dynamic signaling regulation function. In this scenario, S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification involved in oxidative cellular response. Critical Issues: Although it is widely accepted that renal dysfunctions are often associated with altered redox signaling, the relative role of S-glutathionylation on the pathogenesis of specific renal diseases remains unclear and needs further investigations. In this review, we discuss the impact of ROS in renal health and diseases and the role of selective S-glutathionylation proteins potentially relevant to renal physiology. Future Directions: The paucity of studies linking the reversible protein glutathionylation with specific renal disorders remains unmet. The growing number of S-glutathionylated proteins indicates that this is a fascinating area of research. In this respect, further studies on the association of reversible glutathionylation with renal diseases, characterized by oxidative stress, may be useful to develop new pharmacological molecules targeting protein S-glutathionylation. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

Procino G.,University of Bari | Procino G.,Centro Of Eccellenza Of Genomica In Campo Biomedico Ed Agrario Cegba | Milano S.,University of Bari | Carmosino M.,University of Bari | And 6 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (X-NDI) is a disease caused by inactivating mutations of the vasopressin (AVP) type 2 receptor (V2R) gene. Loss of V2R function prevents plasma membrane expression of the AQP2 water channel in the kidney collecting duct cells and impairs the kidney concentration ability. In an attempt to develop strategies to bypass V2R signaling in X-NDI, we evaluated the effects of secretin and fluvastatin, either alone or in combination, on kidney function in a mouse model of X-NDI. The secretin receptor was found to be functionally expressed in the kidney collecting duct cells. Based on this, X-NDI mice were infused with secretin for 14 days but urinary parameters were not altered by the infusion. Interestingly, secretin significantly increased AQP2 levels in the collecting duct but the protein primarily accumulated in the cytosol. Since we previously reported that fluvastatin treatment increased AQP2 plasma membrane expression in wild-type mice, secretin-infused X-NDI mice received a single injection of fluvastatin. Interestingly, urine production by X-NDI mice treated with secretin plus fluvastatin was reduced by nearly 90% and the urine osmolality was doubled. Immunostaining showed that secretin increased intracellular stores of AQP2 and the addition of fluvastatin promoted AQP2 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these findings open new perspectives for the pharmacological treatment of X-NDI. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.

Procino G.,University of Bari | Barbieri C.,University of Bari | Carmosino M.,University of Bari | Tamma G.,University of Bari | And 8 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI), a severe pathological condition characterized by greatly impaired urine-concentrating ability of the kidney, is caused by inactivating mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene. The lack of functional V2Rs prevents vasopressin-induced shuttling of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells, thus promoting water reabsorption from urine to the interstitium. At present, no specific pharmacological therapy exists for the treatment of XNDI. We have previously reported that the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin increases AQP2 membrane expression in renal cells in vitro. Here we report the novel finding that fluvastatin, another member of the statins family, greatly increases kidney water reabsorption in vivo in mice in a vasopressin-independent fashion. Consistent with this observation, fluvastatin is able to increase AQP2 membrane expression in the collecting duct of treated mice. Additional in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that these effects of fluvastatin are most likely caused by fluvastatin-dependent changes in the prenylation status of key proteins regulating AQP2 trafficking in collecting duct cells. We identified members of the Rho and Rab families of proteins as possible candidates whose reduced prenylation might result in the accumulation of AQP2 at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that fluvastatin, or other drugs of the statin family, may prove useful in the therapy of XNDI. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Procino G.,University of Bari | Mastrofrancesco L.,University of Bari | Sallustio F.,University of Bari | Costantino V.,University of Bari | And 7 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

We screened human kidney-derived multipotent CD133+/CD24+ ARPCs for the possible expression of all 13 aquaporin isoforms cloned in humans. Interestingly, we found that ARPCs expressed both AQP5 mRNA and mature protein. This novel finding prompted us to investigate the presence of AQP5 in situ in kidney. We report here the novel finding that AQP5 is expressed in human, rat and mouse kidney at the apical membrane of type-B intercalated cells. AQP5 is expressed in the renal cortex and completely absent from the medulla. Immunocytochemical analysis using segment-and cell type-specific markers unambiguously indicated that AQP5 is expressed throughout the collecting system at the apical membrane of type-B intercalated cells, where it co-localizes with pendrin. No basolateral AQPs were detected in type-B intercalated cells, suggesting that AQP5 is unlikely to be involved in the net trans-epithelial water reabsorption occurring in the distal tubule. An intriguing hypothesis is that AQP5 may serve an osmosensor for the composition of the fluid coming from the thick ascending limb. Future studies will unravel the physiological role of AQP5 in the kidney. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Tamma G.,University of Bari | Lasorsa D.,University of Bari | Ranieri M.,University of Bari | Mastrofrancesco L.,University of Bari | And 3 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) increases the water permeability of renal collecting ducts in response to vasopressin. Vasopressin stimulation is accompanied by a profound remodeling of actin cytoskeleton whose dynamics are regulated by crosstalk between intracellular and extracellular signals. Here, we report that AQP2 contains a conserved RGD domain in its external C-loop. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AQP2 binds integrin β1 in renal tissue and in MCD4 cells. To investigate the role of this interaction on AQP2 trafficking, cells were exposed to synthetic RGD-containing peptides, GRGDNP or GRGDSP, able to bind certain integrins. Incubation with these peptides increased the membrane expression of AQP2 in the absence of hormonal stimulation as assessed by confocal analysis and cell surface biotinylation. To identify the signals underlying the effects of peptides on AQP2 trafficking, some possible intracellular messengers were evaluated. Exposure of MCD4 cells to GRGDNP increased intracellular cAMP as assessed by FRET studies while GRGDSP increased intracellular calcium concentration. Taken together, these data propose integrins as new players controlling the cellular localization of AQP2, via two distinct signal transduction pathways dependent on cAMP and calcium respectively. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Carmosino M.,Yale University | Carmosino M.,University of Bari | Rizzo F.,University of Bari | Procino G.,University of Bari | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2010

The renal-specific Na +-K +-2Cl - cotransporter (NKCC2) is the major salt transport pathway of the apical membrane of the mammalian thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Here, we analyze the role of the tetraspan protein myelin and lymphocytes-associated protein (MAL)/VIP17 in the regulation of NKCC2. We demonstrated that 1) NKCC2 and MAL/VIP17 colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate in Lilly Laboratories cell porcine kidney cells (LLC-PK1) as well as in rat kidney medullae, 2) a 150-amino acid stretch of NKCC2 C-terminal tail is involved in the interaction with MAL/VIP17, 3) MAL/VIP17 increases the cell surface retention of NKCC2 by attenuating its internalization, and 4) this coincides with an increase in cotransporter phosphorylation. Interestingly, overexpression of MAL/VIP17 in the kidney of transgenic mice results in cysts formation in distal nephron structures consistent with the hypothesis that MAL/VIP17 plays an important role in apical sorting or in maintaining the stability of the apical membrane. The NKCC2 expressed in these mice was highly glycosylated and phosphorylated, suggesting that MAL/VIP17 also is involved in the stabilization of NKCC2 at the apical membrane in vivo. Thus, the involvement of MAL/VIP17 in the activation and surface expression of NKCC2 could play an important role in the regulated absorption of Na + and Cl - in the kidney. © 2010 M. Carmosino et al.

Muller-Lucks A.,University of Kiel | Gena P.,University of Bari | Frascaria D.,University of Bari | Altamura N.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
New Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Understanding the selectivity of aquaporin (AQP) membrane channels and exploiting their biotechnological potential will require structural and functional studies of wild type and modified proteins; however, expression systems have not previously yielded AQPs in the necessary milligrams quantities. Cell free (CF) systems have emerged in recent years as fast, efficient and versatile technologies for the production of high quality membrane proteins. Here, we establish a convenient method to synthesize large amounts of functional human aquaglyceroporin 3 protein (AQP3), an AQP of physiological relevance conducting glycerol and some small neutral solutes besides water. Milligram amounts of AQP3 were produced as a histidine-tagged protein (hAQP3-6His) in an Escherichia coli extract-based CF system in the presence of the non-ionic detergent Brij-98. The recombinant AQP3 was purified by affinity chromatography, incorporated into liposomes and evaluated functionally by stopped-flow light scattering. Correct protein folding was indicated by the high glycerol and water permeability exhibited by the hAQP3-6His proteoliposomes as compared to empty control liposomes. Functionality of hAQP3-6His was further confirmed by the strong inhibition of the glycerol and water permeability by phloretin and HgCl2, respectively, two blockers of AQP3. Fast and convenient CF production of functional AQP3 may serve as basis for further structural/functional assessment of aquaglyceroporins and help boosting the AQP-based biomimetic technologies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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