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Bardiani M.,Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Carabinieri Bosco Fontana | Bardiani M.,Consiglio Per La Ricerca In Agricoltura E Lanalisi Delleconomia Agraria Centro Of Ricerca Per Lagrobiologia E La Pedologia | Tini M.,Third University of Rome | Carpaneto G.M.,Third University of Rome | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2017

The implementation of conservation actions requires a reliable assessment of presence and/or abundance of targeted species. This is particularly difficult for rare and elusive species. In this study the use of bottle traps and the effects of two potential baits in relation to height in the trees were tested to detect presence and assess abundance of stag beetles (Lucanidae) and flower chafers (Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae), an important component of forest biodiversity. The study was carried out in a flood-plain forest of northern Italy. Forty-eight handcrafted traps were assigned to two height categories (1.5–2 m and 10–20 m) and three kinds of bait: (i) red wine, white wine and sugar, (ii) red wine, beer and mashed banana, (iii) no bait, as control. Fieldwork lasted 8 weeks, with 32 surveys, from May to July. Overall, we recorded 399 captures of the following species: Dorcus parallelipipedus, Lucanus cervus, Cetonia aurata, Protaetia speciosissima, P.affinis, P. morio and P. cuprea. Traps baited with red wine, white wine and sugar showed the highest detection probabilities for all the species. A clear preference for the canopy layer (traps between 10 and 20 m high) was shown by all species except for D. parallelipipedus which was mostly captured between 1.5 and 2 m of height. The study period was long enough to improve ecological knowledge on species phenology, but not enough to include the whole phenology for all of them. The method allowed the assessment of population size only for flower chafers as the number of stag beetles captures was too low. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Hardersen S.,Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Carabinieri Bosco Fontana | Cuccurullo A.,University of Pisa | Bardiani M.,Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Carabinieri Bosco Fontana | Bologna M.A.,Third University of Rome | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2017

Monitoring of rare or localized saproxylic species is essential for assessing species extinction risk and to investigate the ecological integrity of forests. Morimus asper (Sulzer, 1776) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) is a longhorn beetle for which many aspects of its biology are still unknown and this hampers the development of a standard monitoring protocol. Here we investigated two different systems to attract M. asper in the Reserve Bosco della Fontana (Italy): freshly cut log piles (FCLPs) and pitfall traps baited with selected chemical compounds. The FCLPs were composed from logs of two tree species (Quercus robur L. or Carpinus betulus L.) utilizing wood of three diameter classes (small: 5–12 cm; medium: 13–30 cm; large: 31–60 cm). The occurrence and the detection of M. asper varied during the season and during the time of the day. M. asper was more common in the first half of the season and was more frequently detected at 20:00. Occupancy models did not show a clear influence of log diameter and tree species on species occupancy. In contrast, when analysing the abundance data, a significantly higher number of individuals was intercepted on FCLPs made from Q. robur and on those with a diameter above 13 cm. The baited pitfall traps did not catch any M. asper, even though some of the substances tested are known to attract other species belonging to the same subfamily (Lamiinae). © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Hardersen S.,Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Carabinieri Bosco Fontana | Corezzola S.,Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Carabinieri Bosco Fontana | Gheza G.,University of Pavia | Dell'Otto A.,University of Perugia | la Porta G.,University of Perugia
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2017

Freshwater species are in serious decline all over the world. Thus, monitoring of freshwater ecosystems and species is crucial to guide policy actions and dragonflies are generally considered to be good indicators for these systems. The aquatic life stage of the Odonata is inherently more susceptible to changes in water quality than the imago and therefore exuviae give better insights into site-specific effects. However, utilizing exuviae for monitoring purposes introduces a number of problems. For example, they often do not persist long in the environment. Some of these problems have been addressed. However, there are no published data that distinguish the influence of sampling frequency and total sampling effort on the faunal completeness. Also the number of exuviae necessary to define local assemblages has not been investigated. These questions were addressed by analyzing the data on exuviae collected in seven sites and we found that for any given total amount of time invested, it was always preferable to conduct more short surveys, rather than fewer surveys lasting longer. The study also showed that a sample size of 300 exuviae allowed us to reliably estimate the similarity of two assemblages from different sites. However, when collecting 40 exuviae or less, the reliability was low. Based on our findings we recommend sampling exuviae for a minimum of 5 days, evenly spread out over the entire season during which Odonata emerge, to sample each time for approximately 60 min and aim to collect not less than 300 exuviae in total. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

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