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Ciardo D.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Peroni M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Riboldi M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Riboldi M.,Bioengineering Unit | And 6 more authors.
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Deformable image registration provides a robust mathematical framework to quantify morphological changes that occur along the course of external beam radiotherapy treatments. As clinical reliability of deformable image registration is not always guaranteed, algorithm regularization is commonly introduced to prevent sharp discontinuities in the quantified deformation and achieve anatomically consistent results. In this work we analyzed the influence of regularization on two different registration methods, i.e. B-Splines and Log Domain Diffeomorphic Demons, implemented in an open-source platform. We retrospectively analyzed the simulation computed tomography (CTsim) and the corresponding re-planning computed tomography (CTrepl) scans in 30 head and neck cancer patients. First, we investigated the influence of regularization levels on hounsfield units (HU) information in 10 test patients for each considered method. Then, we compared the registration results of the open-source implementation at selected best performing regularization levels with a clinical commercial software on the remaining 20 patients in terms of mean volume overlap, surface and center of mass distances between manual outlines and propagated structures. The regularized B-Splines method was not statistically different from the commercial software. The tuning of the regularization parameters allowed open-source algorithms to achieve better results in deformable image registration for head and neck patients, with the additional benefit of a framework where regularization can be tuned on a patient specific basis. © Adenine Press (2013).


Ferrari A.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | Ferrari A.,Helmholtz Center Dresden | Ferrarini M.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | Ferrarini M.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2011

The double differential particle yield produced by hadron beams striking thick targets of copper, tungsten and ICRU tissue, have been determined by means of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA (version FLUKA 2008.3b.1). 400 MeV/u carbon ion and 250 MeV proton pencil beams have been considered. Secondary neutrons, photons, and protons have been scored. In order to validate the obtained data, a few simulations have been also repeated with MCNPX 2.6.0. The calculated results are presented and compared with the experimental data reported in literature. They should be very useful to solve a number of problems related to technological aspects of hadrontherapy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Peroni M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ciardo D.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Spadea M.F.,University of Catanzaro | Riboldi M.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an efficient and automatic strategy to generate online virtual computed tomography (CT) scans for adaptive radiation therapy (ART) in head-and-neck (HN) cancer treatment. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients, treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), for an HN malignancy. Different anatomical structures were considered: mandible, parotid glands, and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV). We generated 28 virtualCT scans by means of nonrigid registration of simulation computed tomography (CTsim) and cone beam CT images (CBCTs), acquired for patient setup. We validated our approach by considering the real replanning CT (CTrepl) as ground truth. We computed the Dice coefficient (DSC), center of mass (COM) distance, and root mean square error (RMSE) between correspondent points located on the automatically segmented structures on CBCT and virtualCT. Results: Residual deformation between CTrepl and CBCT was below one voxel. Median DSC was around 0.8 for mandible and parotid glands, but only 0.55 for nGTV, because of the fairly homogeneous surrounding soft tissues and of its small volume. Median COM distance and RMSE were comparable with image resolution. No significant correlation between RMSE and initial or final deformation was found. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence that deformable image registration may contribute significantly in reducing the need of full CT-based replanning in HN radiation therapy by supporting swift and objective decision-making in clinical practice. Further work is needed to strengthen algorithm potential in nGTV localization. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Paganelli C.,Polytechnic of Milan | Peroni M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Riboldi M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Riboldi M.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | And 8 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aims at compensating for anatomic and pathological changes to improve delivery along a treatment fraction sequence. Current ART protocols require time-consuming manual updating of all volumes of interest on the images acquired during treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) and contour propagation stand as a state of the ART method to automate the process, but the lack of DIR quality control methods hinder an introduction into clinical practice. We investigated the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method as a quantitative automated tool (1) for DIR evaluation and (2) for re-planning decision-making in the framework of ART treatments. As a preliminary test, SIFT invariance properties at shape-preserving and deformable transformations were studied on a computational phantom, granting residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. Then a clinical dataset composed of 19 head and neck ART patients was used to quantify the performance in ART treatments. For the goal (1) results demonstrated SIFT potential as an operator-independent DIR quality assessment metric. We measured DIR group systematic residual errors up to 0.66 mm against 1.35 mm provided by rigid registration. The group systematic errors of both bony and all other structures were also analyzed, attesting the presence of anatomical deformations. The correct automated identification of 18 patients who might benefit from ART out of the total 22 cases using SIFT demonstrated its capabilities toward goal (2) achievement. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


PubMed | Polytechnic of Milan and Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2017

At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO, Pavia, Italy) C-ions respiratory gated treatments of patients with abdominal tumours started in 2014. In these cases, the therapeutic dose is delivered around end-exhale. We propose the use of a respiratory motion model to evaluate residual tumour motion. Such a model requires motion fields obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) between 4DCT phases, estimating anatomical motion through interpolation. The aim of this work is to identify the optimal DIR technique to be integrated in the modeling pipeline.We used 4DCT datasets from 4 patients to test 4 DIR algorithms: Bspline, demons, log-domain and symmetric log domain diffeomorphic demons. We evaluate DIR performance in terms of registration accuracy (RMSE between registered images) and anatomical consistency of the motion field (Jacobian) when registering end-inhale to end-exhale. We subsequently employed the model to estimate the tumour trajectory within the ideal gating window.Within the liver contour, the RMSE is in the range 31-46 HU for the best performing algorithm (Bspline) and 43-145 HU for the worst one (demons). The Jacobians featured zero negative voxels (which indicate singularities in the motion field) for the Bspline fields in 3 of 4 patients, whereas diffeomorphic demons fields showed a non-null number of negative voxels in every case. GTV motion in the gating window measured less than 7 mm for every patient, displaying a predominant superior-inferior (SI) component.The Bspline algorithm allows for acceptable DIR results in the abdominal region, exhibiting the property of anatomical consistency of the computed field. Computed trajectories are in agreement with clinical expectations (small and prevalent SI displacements), since patients lie wearing semi-rigid immobilizing masks. In future, the model could be used for retrospective estimation of organ motion during treatment, as guided by the breathing surrogate signal.


Mairani A.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | Bohlen T.T.,Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center | Bohlen T.T.,CERN | Dokic I.,University of Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Biology | Year: 2013

Purpose: An approach for describing cell killing with sparsely ionizing radiation in normoxic and hypoxic conditions based on the initial number of randomly distributed DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is proposed. An extension of the model to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is also presented. Materials and methods: The model is based on the probabilities that a given DNA giant loop has one DSB or at least two DSB. A linear combination of these two classes of damage gives the mean number of lethal lesions. When coupled with a proper modelling of the spatial distribution of DSB from ion tracks, the formalism can be used to predict cell response to high LET radiation in aerobic conditions. Results: Survival data for sparsely ionizing radiation of cell lines in normoxic/hypoxic conditions were satisfactorily fitted with the proposed parametrization. It is shown that for dose ranges up to about 10 Gy, the model describes tested experimental survival data as good as the linear-quadratic model does. The high LET extension yields a reasonable agreement with data in aerobic conditions. Conclusions: A new survival model has been introduced that is able to describe the most relevant features of cellular dose-response postulating two damage classes. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


PubMed | University of Turin, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy and Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2016

A description of a GPU-based dose delivery system (G-DDS) to integrate a fast forward planning implementing in real-time the prescribed sequence of pencil beams. The system, which is under development, is designed to evaluate the dose distribution deviations due to range variations and interplay effects affecting mobile tumors treatments.The Dose Delivery System (DDS) in use at the Italian Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), is the starting point for the presented system. A fast and partial forward planning (FP) tool has been developed to evaluate in few seconds the delivered dose distributions using the DDS data (on-line measurements of spot properties, i.e. number of particles and positions). The computation is performed during the intervals between synchrotron spills and, made available at the end of each spill. In the interval between two spills, the G-DDS will evaluate the delivered dose distributions taking into account the real-time target positions measured by a tracking system. The sequence of prescribed pencil beams for the following spill will be adapted taking into account the variations with respect to the original plan due to the target motion. In order to speed up the computation required to modify pencil beams distribution (up to 400 times has been reached), the Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and advanced Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are used.An existing offline forward planning is going to be optimized for the CUDA architecture: the gain in time will be presented. The preliminary performances of the developed GPU-based FP algorithms will be shown.A prototype of a GPU-based dose delivery system is under development and will be presented. The system workflow will be illustrated together with the approach adopted to integrate the three main systems, i.e. CNAO dose delivery system, fast forward planning, and tumor tracking system.


PubMed | Uniklinikum Heidelberg, CERN, Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in oncology | Year: 2016

Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both (4)He and (12)C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth-dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features.


Tessonnier T.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | Tessonnier T.,Joseph Fourier University | Mairani A.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | Cappucci F.,Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica | And 6 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2014

The integration of Monte Carlo (MC) transport codes into a particle therapy facility could be more easily achieved thanks to dedicated software tools. MC approach has been applied to several purposes at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), such as database generation for the treatment planning system, quality assurance calculations and biologically related simulations. In this paper we describe another application of the MC code and its tools by analyzing the impact of the dose delivery and range uncertainties on patient dose distributions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Centro Nazionale Of Adroterapia Oncologica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied clinical medical physics | Year: 2016

Particle therapy (PT) has shown positive therapeutic results in local control of locally advanced pancreatic lesions. PT effectiveness is highly influenced by target localization accuracy both in space, since the pancreas is located in proximity to radiosensitive vital organs, and in time as it is subject to substantial breathing-related motion. The purpose of this preliminary study was to quantify pancreas range of motion under typical PT treatment conditions. Three common immobilization devices (vacuum cushion, thermoplastic mask, and compressor belt) were evaluated on five male patients in prone and supine positions. Retrospective four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging data were reconstructed for each condition and the pancreas was manually segmented on each of six breathing phases. A k-means algorithm was then applied on the manually segmented map in order to obtain clusters representative of the three pancreas segments: head, body, and tail. Centers of mass (COM) for the pancreas and its segments were computed, as well as their displacements with respect to a reference breathing phase (beginning exhalation). The median three-dimensional COM displacements were in the range of 3 mm. Latero-lateral and superior-inferior directions had a higher range of motion than the anterior-posterior direction. Motion analysis of the pancreas segments showed slightly lower COM displacements for the head cluster compared to the tail cluster, especially in prone position. Statistically significant differences were found within patients among the investigated setups. Hence a patient-specific approach, rather than a general strategy, is suggested to define the optimal treatment setup in the frame of a millimeter positioning accuracy.

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