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O'hara J.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cerretti P.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Pape T.,Universitetsparken 15 | Evenhuis N.L.,nsley Gressitt Center For Entomological Research
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

The Diptera genus-group names of Camillo Rondani are reviewed and annotated. A total of 601 nomenclaturally available genus-group names in 82 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically. For each name the following are given: author, year and page of original publication, originally included species [and first included species if none were originally included], type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index is provided to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Rondani (1,236, of which 1,183 are available) with bibliographic reference to each original citation. Appended to this study is a full bibliography of Rondani's works and a list with explanations for all new synonymies arising from revised emendations. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Cini A.,University of Florence | Cini A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Cini A.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Patalano S.,UK Institute of Zoology | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

Contrasting phenotypes arise from similar genomes through a combination of losses, gains, co-option and modifications of inherited genomic material. Understanding the molecular basis of this phenotypic diversity is a fundamental challenge in modern evolutionary biology. Comparisons of the genes and their expression patterns underlying traits in closely related species offer an unrivaled opportunity to evaluate the extent to which genomic material is reorganized to produce novel traits. Advances in molecular methods now allow us to dissect the molecular machinery underlying phenotypic diversity in almost any organism, from single-celled entities to the most complex vertebrates. Here we discuss how comparisons of social parasites and their free-living hosts may provide unique insights into the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution. Social parasites evolve from a eusocial ancestor and are specialized to exploit the socially acquired resources of their closely-related eusocial host. Molecular comparisons of such species pairs can reveal how genomic material is re-organized in the loss of ancestral traits (i.e., of free-living traits in the parasites) and the gain of new ones (i.e., specialist traits required for a parasitic lifestyle). We define hypotheses on the molecular basis of phenotypes in the evolution of social parasitism and discuss their wider application in our understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity within the theoretical framework of phenotypic plasticity and shifting reaction norms. Currently there are no data available to test these hypotheses, and so we also provide some proof of concept data using the paper wasp social parasite/host system (Polistes sulcifer-Polistes dominula). This conceptual framework and first empirical data provide a spring-board for directing future genomic analyses on exploiting social parasites as a route to understanding the evolution of phenotypic specialization. © 2015 Cini, Patalano, Segonds-Pichon, Busby, Cervo and Sumner.

Inghilesi A.F.,University of Florence | Mazza G.,University of Florence | Mazza G.,Agricultural Research Council | Cervo R.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Current Zoology | Year: 2015

Invasive alien pest insect species represent a major threat for agriculture and biodiversity. Because chemical treatments employed to contrast such pests elicit serious environmental and human health problems, a great effort is currently directed to develop long term and environmentally friendly biological control strategies. However, the successful application of some promising techniques, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), requires a deep knowledge of the pest basic biology. Here, we argue that understanding pest sexual biology using a social network approach can significantly improve the performance of control strategies. For example, SIT may benefit from understanding how individuals interact and how males accede to reproduction, in order to target the most reproductively active and polygamic males. In this paper we studied the socio-sexual networks of the Asian red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a worldwide invader which is causing heavy economic impacts on several palm species. We found that the RPW has a highly promiscuous mating system, characterized by forced interruptions of pair copulations by additional males. The social network is highly non-random nor regular: few males almost monopolize reproduction, behaving as key-players in the network of matings. Additionally, males have a stable pattern of sexual behaviour over time. We use RPW social network as a case study to direct the development of management techniques such as SIT strategy © 2015 Current Zoology.

Mason F.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Rozkosny R.,Masaryk University
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

The species of Ptilocera Wiedemann, 1820 are re-examined on the basis of extensive historical as well as recent material from several institutions and a critical evaluation of published records. Ten species are distinguished and three of them, P. aureopilosa sp. nov., P. kerteszi sp. nov. and P. simplex sp. nov. are described as new. Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker, 1857, is considered to be a synonym of P. continua Walker, 1851, and P. smaragdifera Walker, 1859 is interperted as a synonym of P. smaragdina Walker, 1849. Lectotypes are designated for P. amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857, P. fastuosa, P. quadridentata (Fabricius, 1805) and P. smaragdifera. Seven species (P. amethystina, P. continua, P. kerteszi sp. nov., P. paradisea Lindner, 1951, P. quadridentata, P. simplex sp. nov. and P. smaragdina are mainly confined to the Oriental Region and three to the Australasian Region (P. aureopilosa sp. nov., P. bergi James, 1948, and P. violacea Edwards, 1915). Ptilocera quadridentata was introduced to Japan and Fiji, and P. smaragdina to New Britain. P. bergi is newly recorded from Australia, P. amethystina, P. continua and P. quadridentata from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the first two species also from Myanmar, P. amethystina also from Malaysia and Thailand, and P. continua also from Nepal and Singapore. Diagnostic characters including terminalia of both sexes are illustrated for all species examined and an identification key is compiled. Copyright © 2011. Magnolia Press.

D'Amen M.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | D'Amen M.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Bombi P.,SPACEnvironment | Campanaro A.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | And 5 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2013

Read the Commentaries on this Feature Paper: Institutional vertebratism hampers insect conservation generally; not just saproxylic beetle conservation; Knowledge gaps in protected area effectiveness Response from the authors: Possible directions in the protection of the neglected invertebrate biodiversity Up to now, global conservation priorities are far from incorporating megadiverse invertebrate taxa. Thus, an important emerging field in biological conservation is how we might manage landscape to preserve insects. In this study, we analyze the efficacy of Italian reserve network for protecting multiple saproxylic beetles, considering both nationally designated areas and Natura 2000 sites. We selected 150 species inhabiting the Italian territory from the European Red List for saproxylic beetles, on the basis of distribution data availability. For each species, a vulnerability score was assigned according to their Red List status, and the species' distributions data were used to perform an irreplaceability analysis. Our analyses show that conservation targets based on geographic range extent are achieved for only 7% of the considered species. We find that 13 species are not represented in any protected area: among these, two click beetle species (Elateridae) are listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature threatened categories (i.e. Ampedus quadrisignatusEN and AmpedusbrunnicornisVU). Our analyses on protected area effectiveness for the conservation of saproxylic beetles showed that nationally designated protected areas are more irreplaceable than a random selection of cells. Surprisingly, the addition of Natura 2000 sites did not improve the species representation. Moreover, these reserves include sites that are not more irreplaceable than a random selection of cells. We identify some currently unprotected areas that protection could prevent from future extinctions and ensure a favorable conservation status of saproxylic beetles. In particular, we find an important stronghold for beetle conservation, which obtained a high irreplaceability score, in the Adige river basin. We recommend the designation of new reserves in this area to complement the existing network and to help guarantee invertebrate saproxylic fauna protection. Animal Conservation © 2013 The Zoological Society of London.

Bombi P.,National Research Council Italy | D'Amen M.,National Research Council Italy | D'Amen M.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Luiselli L.,ENI S.p.A
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Terrestrial tortoises are the most endangered group of vertebrates but they are still largely ignored for defining global conservation priorities. In this paper, we explored within a hierarchical framework the potential contribution of prioritization studies at the continental scale to the planning of local initiatives for the conservation of African tortoises at the regional level. First, we modeled the distribution of all the African tortoise species, we calculated three indicators of conservation priority (i.e. species richness, conservation value, and complementarity), and we carried out a gap analysis at continental scale. Second, we focused on the most important region for tortoise conservation and performed the same analyses at higher resolution. Finally, we compared the results from the two scales for understanding the degree to which they are complementary. Southern Africa emerged from the continental analysis as the most important region for tortoises. Within this area, the high-resolution analysis pointed out specific core sites for conservation. The relative degree of species protection was assessed similarly at the two different resolutions. Two species appeared particularly vulnerable at both scales. Priority indices calculated at high resolution were correlated to the values calculated for the corresponding cells at low resolution but the congruence was stronger for species richness. Our results suggest to integrate the calculation of conservation value and complementarity into a hierarchical framework driven by species richness. The advantages of large scale planning include its broad perspective on complementarity and the capability to identify regions with greatest conservation potential. In this light, continental analyses allow targeting fine scale studies toward regions with maximum priority. The regional analyses at fine scale allow planning conservation measure at a resolution similar to that required for the practical implementation, reducing the uncertainty associated with low resolution studies. © 2013 Bombi et al.

D'Amen M.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | D'Amen M.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | Bombi P.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | Campanaro A.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana | And 5 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2013

Read the Feature Paper: Protected areas and insect conservation: questioning the effectiveness of Natura 2000 network for saproxylic beetles in Italy Commentaries on this Feature Paper: Institutional vertebratism hampers insect conservation generally; not just saproxylic beetle conservation; © 2013 The Zoological Society of London.

Cerretti P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Cerretti P.,Centro Nazionale Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2012

Five remarkable new Afrotropical species belonging to four Old World genera never recorded before for the Afrotropical region (Neophryxe, Calliethilla, Metadrinomyia, Pseudalsomyia) are described and compared with congeners. Existing keys to tropical African tachinid genera are implemented. A brief discussion on the apomorphic support to each genus is provided. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

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