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Corbalan-Tutau M.D.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Abellan P.,University of Murcia | Madrid J.A.,University of Murcia | Canteras M.,University of Murcia | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background & aims: To test several circadian rhythm variables in a female population to identify the best tool to assess chronodisruption in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) to define a score to be used for chronodisruption characterization in clinical practice. Methods: Anthropometric measurements and markers of circadian rhythms, such as sleep and feeding diary, Horne-Ostberg questionnaire, melatonin and cortisol measurements, and wrist temperature measurements, were determined. MetS variables were also analyzed. Study was conducted in 70 women. Data were subjected to factor analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used as predictors of chronodisruption risk, and a score was calculated to classify the subjects of risk. Results: Factor analysis showed that the first-factor grouped variables were related to the skin temperature measurement. Second factor consisted of variables related to salivary cortisol levels and obesity-related measurements. Third factor included variables related to sleep-wake cycle. Fourth factor referred to peripheral temperature variables and included the classification of subjects according to the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire. To obtain a final punctuation we performed the weighted mean of the first four factors. The final range was from 27 to 57, mean value of 42. Punctuation was defined as the "chronodisruption score." Women displaying higher chronodisruption scores had higher MetS risk. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that wrist temperature recordings, together with two questions of sleep onset and offset, and one morning salivary cortisol determination could be enough to characterize the chronobiology of obesity and MetS, a new chronodisruption score was developed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source


Perez-Martinez P.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Delgado-Lista J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Rios A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Mc Monagle J.,University College Dublin | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (GCKR) plays a central role regulating both hepatic triglyceride and glucose metabolism. Fatty acids are key metabolic regulators, which interact with genetic factors and influence glucose metabolism and other metabolic traits. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been of considerable interest, due to their potential to reduce metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Objective: To examine whether genetic variability at the GCKR gene locus was associated with the degree of insulin resistance, plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and n-3 PUFA in MetS subjects. Design: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA-B, plasma concentrations of C-peptide, CRP, fatty acid composition and the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism, were determined in a cross-sectional analysis of 379 subjects with MetS participating in the LIPGENE dietary cohort. Results: Among subjects with n-3 PUFA levels below the population median, carriers of the common C/C genotype had higher plasma concentrations of fasting insulin (P = 0.019), C-peptide (P = 0.004), HOMA-IR (P = 0.008) and CRP (P = 0.032) as compared with subjects carrying the minor T-allele (Leu446). In contrast, homozygous C/C carriers with n-3 PUFA levels above the median showed lower plasma concentrations of fasting insulin, peptide C, HOMA-IR and CRP, as compared with individuals with the T-allele. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a significant interaction between the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism and plasma n-3 PUFA levels modulating insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in MetS subjects. Further studies are needed to confirm this gene-diet interaction in the general population and whether targeted dietary recommendations can prevent MetS in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2011 Perez-Martinez et al. Source


Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | Ordovas J.M.,Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC | Ordovas J.M.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2013

As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPARα receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory marker response, we conducted a 3-week trial of fenofibrate in 861 men and women. Mixed linear models that controlled for age and sex, as well as family pedigree and study center, were constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARα gene as predictors and changes in fasting triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and inflammatory markers as outcomes. Significant associations with low-density cholesterol and interleukin-2 (P<0.001) responses to fenofibrate were found. Although there were suggestive associations with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and TG responses (P<0.05), these did not survive the correction for multiple testing. We conclude that variants in the PPARα gene may contribute to future pharmacogenomic paradigms seeking to predict fenofibrate responders from both an anti-dyslipidemic and anti-inflammatory perspective. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Houston | Manichaikul A.,University of Virginia | Aslibekyan S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 15 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Specific constellations of lipoprotein particle features, reflected as differences in mean lipoprotein particle diameters, are associated with risk of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The associations of lipid profiles with disease risk differ by race/ethnicity, the reason for this is not clear. We aimed to examine whether there were additional genetic differences between racial/ethnic groups on lipoprotein profile. Genotypes were assessed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Association analysis was conducted on fasting mean particle diameters using linear models, adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. Replication of associations reaching P < 1.97 × 10 -05 (the level at which we achieved at least 80 % power to replicate SNP-phenotype associations) was conducted in the Caucasian population of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; N = 2,430). Variants which replicated across both Caucasian populations were subsequently tested for association in the African-American (N = 1,594), Chinese (N = 758), and Hispanic (N = 1,422) populations of MESA. Variants in the APOB gene region were significantly associated with mean VLDL diameter in GOLDN, and in the Caucasian and Hispanic populations of MESA, while variation in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene was associated with mean HDL diameter in both Caucasians populations only. Our findings suggest that the genetic underpinnings of mean lipoprotein diameter differ by race/ethnicity. As lipoprotein diameters are modifiable, this may lead new strategies to modify lipoprotein profiles during the reduction of IR that are sensitive to race/ethnicity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Corbalan-Tutau M.D.,University of Murcia | Madrid J.A.,University of Murcia | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | Ordovas J.M.,Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC | And 3 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2011

The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its daily rhythmicity patterns. Daily patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m 2) (mean ± SEM). Skin temperature was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT daily rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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