Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC

Madrid, Spain

Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC

Madrid, Spain
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Wang Z.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Manichukal A.,University of Virginia | Mora S.,Harvard University | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | And 12 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2017

A recent genome-wide association study associated 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 43 genomic loci, with fasting lipoprotein subfractions in European–Americans (EAs) at genome-wide levels of significance across three independent samples. Whether these associations are consistent across ethnicities with a non-European ancestry is unknown. We analyzed 15 lipoprotein subfraction measures, on 1677 African–Americans (AAs), 1450 Hispanic–Americans (HAs), and 775 Chinese–Americans (CHN) participating in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Genome-wide data were obtained using the Affymetrix 6.0 and Illumina HumanOmni chips. Linear regression models between genetic variables and lipoprotein subfractions were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, study center, and genetic ancestry (based on principal components), and additionally adjusted for Mexican/Non-Mexican status in HAs. A false discovery rate correction was applied separately within the results for each ethnicity to correct for multiple testing. Power calculations revealed that we did not have the power for SNP-based measures of association, so we analyzed phenotype-specific genetic risk scores (GRSs), constructed as in the original genome-wide analysis. We successfully replicated all 15 GRS–lipoprotein associations in 2527 EAs. Among the 15 significant GRS–lipoprotein associations in EAs, 11 were significant in AAs, 13 in HAs, and 1 in CHNs. Further analyses revealed that ethnicity differences could not be explained by differences in linkage disequilibrium, lipid lowering drugs, diabetes, or gender. Our study emphasizes the importance of ethnicity (here indexing genetic ancestry) in genetic risk for CVD and highlights the need to identify ethnicity-specific genetic variants associated with CVD risk. © 2017 The Author(s)

Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Houston | Manichaikul A.,University of Virginia | Aslibekyan S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 15 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Specific constellations of lipoprotein particle features, reflected as differences in mean lipoprotein particle diameters, are associated with risk of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The associations of lipid profiles with disease risk differ by race/ethnicity, the reason for this is not clear. We aimed to examine whether there were additional genetic differences between racial/ethnic groups on lipoprotein profile. Genotypes were assessed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Association analysis was conducted on fasting mean particle diameters using linear models, adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. Replication of associations reaching P < 1.97 × 10 -05 (the level at which we achieved at least 80 % power to replicate SNP-phenotype associations) was conducted in the Caucasian population of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; N = 2,430). Variants which replicated across both Caucasian populations were subsequently tested for association in the African-American (N = 1,594), Chinese (N = 758), and Hispanic (N = 1,422) populations of MESA. Variants in the APOB gene region were significantly associated with mean VLDL diameter in GOLDN, and in the Caucasian and Hispanic populations of MESA, while variation in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene was associated with mean HDL diameter in both Caucasians populations only. Our findings suggest that the genetic underpinnings of mean lipoprotein diameter differ by race/ethnicity. As lipoprotein diameters are modifiable, this may lead new strategies to modify lipoprotein profiles during the reduction of IR that are sensitive to race/ethnicity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Perez-Martinez P.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Delgado-Lista J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Rios A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Mc Monagle J.,University College Dublin | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (GCKR) plays a central role regulating both hepatic triglyceride and glucose metabolism. Fatty acids are key metabolic regulators, which interact with genetic factors and influence glucose metabolism and other metabolic traits. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been of considerable interest, due to their potential to reduce metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Objective: To examine whether genetic variability at the GCKR gene locus was associated with the degree of insulin resistance, plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and n-3 PUFA in MetS subjects. Design: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA-B, plasma concentrations of C-peptide, CRP, fatty acid composition and the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism, were determined in a cross-sectional analysis of 379 subjects with MetS participating in the LIPGENE dietary cohort. Results: Among subjects with n-3 PUFA levels below the population median, carriers of the common C/C genotype had higher plasma concentrations of fasting insulin (P = 0.019), C-peptide (P = 0.004), HOMA-IR (P = 0.008) and CRP (P = 0.032) as compared with subjects carrying the minor T-allele (Leu446). In contrast, homozygous C/C carriers with n-3 PUFA levels above the median showed lower plasma concentrations of fasting insulin, peptide C, HOMA-IR and CRP, as compared with individuals with the T-allele. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a significant interaction between the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism and plasma n-3 PUFA levels modulating insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in MetS subjects. Further studies are needed to confirm this gene-diet interaction in the general population and whether targeted dietary recommendations can prevent MetS in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2011 Perez-Martinez et al.

Corbalan-Tutau M.D.,University of Murcia | Madrid J.A.,University of Murcia | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | Ordovas J.M.,Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC | And 3 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2011

The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its daily rhythmicity patterns. Daily patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m 2) (mean ± SEM). Skin temperature was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT daily rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Aslibekyan S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Borecki I.B.,University of Washington | Hopkins P.N.,University of Utah | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics | Year: 2012

Objective: A shift towards overall larger very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and smaller low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) diameters occurs in insulin resistance (IR), which reflects shifts in the distribution of the subfraction concentrations. Fenofibrate, indicated for hypertriglyceridemia, simultaneously reduces IR and shifts in lipoprotein diameter. Individual responses to fenofibrate vary, and we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic differences that could contribute to such differences. Methods: Association analysis was conducted between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Affymetrix 6.0 array and fasting particle diameter responses to a 12-week fenofibrate trial, in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. Linear models were conducted, which adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. The top three SNPs associated with each fraction were examined subsequently for associations with changes in subfraction concentrations. Results: SNPs in AHCYL2 and CD36 genes reached, or closely approached, genome-wide levels of significance with VLDL and HDL diameter responses to fenofibrate, respectively (P=4×10 and 8×10). SNPs in AHCYL2 were associated with a decrease in the concentration of the large VLDL subfraction only (P=0.002). SNPs associated with HDL diameter change were not associated with a single subfraction concentration change (P>0.05) indicating small shifts across all subfractions. Conclusion: We report novel associations between lipoprotein diameter responses to fenofibrate and the AHCYL2 and CD36 genes. Previous associations of these genes with IR emphasize the role of IR in mediating lipoprotein response to fenofibrate. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health |Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | Ordovas J.M.,Centro Nacional Investigacion Cardiovasculares CNIC | Ordovas J.M.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2013

As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPARα receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory marker response, we conducted a 3-week trial of fenofibrate in 861 men and women. Mixed linear models that controlled for age and sex, as well as family pedigree and study center, were constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARα gene as predictors and changes in fasting triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and inflammatory markers as outcomes. Significant associations with low-density cholesterol and interleukin-2 (P<0.001) responses to fenofibrate were found. Although there were suggestive associations with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and TG responses (P<0.05), these did not survive the correction for multiple testing. We conclude that variants in the PPARα gene may contribute to future pharmacogenomic paradigms seeking to predict fenofibrate responders from both an anti-dyslipidemic and anti-inflammatory perspective. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Kabagambe E.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Borecki I.B.,Washington University in St. Louis | Tiwari H.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: The LDL receptor-related protein-1 gene (LRP-1) has been associated with obesity in animal models, but no such association has yet been reported in humans. As data suggest this increase in fat mass may be mediated through a mechanism involving the clearance of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), where the LRP interacts with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on chylomicron remnants, we aimed to examine (1) whether there was an association between 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on LRP-1 with body mass index (BMI) and (2) whether any association between LRP-1 SNPs and BMI could be modified by polymorphisms on the ApoE gene when comparing the wild type ε3/ε3 genotype against mutant ApoE allele (ε2/ε4) carriers. Methods/Results: We used data from 1,036 men and women (mean age±SD = 49±16 y) participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Mixed linear models, which controlled for age, sex, alcohol intake and smoking, as well as family pedigree and center of data collection were calculated. Models that used LRP-1 genotype as a predictor of BMI revealed that individuals who were homozygous for the minor allele at the LRP-1 I10701 locus had BMIs, on average, 1.03 kg/m 2 higher than major allele carriers (P = 0.03). In subsequent mixed linear models that included main effects of LRP-1 I10701 SNP and ApoE alleles, and an interaction term the two genotypes, there was no interaction detected between the LRP-1 I70701 genotype with either the ApoE ε2 or ε4 allele carriers (P>0.05). Conclusions: This has implications for starting to understand pathways from genotype to human BMI, which may operate through TGRL uptake at the LRP-1 receptor. This may pave the way for future research into individualized dietary interventions. © 2012 Frazier-Wood et al.

Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Kabagambe E.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Borecki I.B.,Washington University in St. Louis | Tiwari H.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 3 more authors.
Lipid Insights | Year: 2011

We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting tri yceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mean age ± SD = 49 ± 16y) were included. Mixed linear models were run with saturated fat as a predictor variable and fasting TG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density cholesterol (HDL-C) as separate outcome variables. Subsequent models were run which included dietary carbohydrate as a predictor variable, and an interaction term between saturated fat and carbohydrate. All models controlled for age, sex, BMI, blood pressure and dietary covariates. In models that included only saturated fat as a predictor, saturated fat did not show significant associations with fasting lipids. When carbohydrate intake and an interaction term between carbohydrates and saturated fat intake was included, carbohydrate intake did not associate with lipids, but there was an inverse relationship between saturated fat intake and VLDL-C (P = 0.01) with a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between saturated fat and carbohydrate with regard to fasting VLDL-C concentrations. Similar results were observed for fasting TG levels. We conclude that, when controlling for carbohydrate intake, higher saturated fat was associated with lower VLDL-C and TGs. This was not the case at higher intakes of carbohydrate. This has important implications for dietary advice aimed at reducing TG and VLDL-C levels. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

Cusano N.E.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Cusano N.E.,Columbia University | Kiel D.P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Kiel D.P.,Harvard University | And 12 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2012

There is increasing interest in identifying new pathways and candidate genes that confer susceptibility to osteoporosis. There is evidence that adipogenesis and osteogenesis may be related, including a common bone marrow progenitor cell for both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and Perilipin 4 (PLIN4) are members of the PATS family of genes and are involved in lipolysis of intracellular lipid deposits. A previous study reported gender-specific associations between one polymorphism of PLIN1 and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Japanese population. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in PLIN1 and PLIN4 would be associated with bone measures in adult Caucasian participants of the Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS). We genotyped 1,206 male and 1,445 female participants of the FOS for four single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in PLIN1 and seven SNPs in PLIN4 and tested for associations with measures of BMD, bone ultrasound, hip geometry, and height. We found several gender-specific significant associations with the measured traits. The association of PLIN4 SNP rs8887, G>A with height in females trended toward significance after simulation testing (adjusted P = 0.07) and remained significant after simulation testing in the combined-sex model (adjusted P = 0.033). In a large study sample of men and women, we found a significant association between one SNP in PLIN4 and height but not with bone traits, suggesting that PATS family genes are not important in the regulation of bone. Identification of genes that influence human height may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved in growth and development. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Corbalan-Tutau M.D.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Abellan P.,University of Murcia | Madrid J.A.,University of Murcia | Canteras M.,University of Murcia | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background & aims: To test several circadian rhythm variables in a female population to identify the best tool to assess chronodisruption in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) to define a score to be used for chronodisruption characterization in clinical practice. Methods: Anthropometric measurements and markers of circadian rhythms, such as sleep and feeding diary, Horne-Ostberg questionnaire, melatonin and cortisol measurements, and wrist temperature measurements, were determined. MetS variables were also analyzed. Study was conducted in 70 women. Data were subjected to factor analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used as predictors of chronodisruption risk, and a score was calculated to classify the subjects of risk. Results: Factor analysis showed that the first-factor grouped variables were related to the skin temperature measurement. Second factor consisted of variables related to salivary cortisol levels and obesity-related measurements. Third factor included variables related to sleep-wake cycle. Fourth factor referred to peripheral temperature variables and included the classification of subjects according to the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire. To obtain a final punctuation we performed the weighted mean of the first four factors. The final range was from 27 to 57, mean value of 42. Punctuation was defined as the "chronodisruption score." Women displaying higher chronodisruption scores had higher MetS risk. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that wrist temperature recordings, together with two questions of sleep onset and offset, and one morning salivary cortisol determination could be enough to characterize the chronobiology of obesity and MetS, a new chronodisruption score was developed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

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