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Galisteo J.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Perez-Marin C.C.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

This paper investigated gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in three different Spanish donkey breeds (Andalusian, Zamorano-Leones, and Catalonian) kept on farm conditions in southern Spain, using data for ten consecutive breeding seasons. Gestation length was measured in 58 pregnancies. Ovarian ultrasonography was used to detect the ovulation, in order to ascertain true gestation length (ovulation-parturition). Pregnancy was diagnosed approximately 14-18 d after ovulation and confirmed on approximately day 60. Average gestation length was 362 15.3 (SD) d, and no significant differences were observed between the three different breeds. Breeding season had a significant effect (P < 0.01), with longer gestation lengths when jennies were covered during the early period. Breed, age of jenny, year of birth, foal gender, month of breeding, and type of gestation had no significant effect on gestation length. After parturition, foal-heat was detected in 53.8% of the postpartum cycles studied (n = 78), and ovulation occurred on day 13.2 2.7. The duration of foal-heat was 4.7 1.7 d, with a pregnancy rate of 40.5%.When subsequent estrus cycles were analyzed, the interovulatory interval (n = 68) and estrus duration (n = 258) were extended to a mean 23.8 3.5 and 5.7 2.2 d, respectively. Both variables were influenced by the year of study (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001), whereas month and season of ovulation (P < 0.005 and P < 0.009, respectively) affected only interovulatory intervals. Estrus duration was significantly longer than that observed at the foal-heat (P < 0.006), and the pregnancy rate was 65.8%.This study provides reference values for true gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish jennies. Breeding season affected gestation length in farm conditions. Also, seasonal influence was observed on the length of the estrus cycle (i.e., interovulatory interval), although foal-heat was not affected by environmental factors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Perez-Rico A.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila | Sanmartin M.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | De Santiago A.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Vega-Pla J.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Equine germplasm bank management involves not only the conservation and use of semen doses, in addition it can also be a resource to study stallion semen quality and after thawing semen properties for reproductive purposes. A possible criterion to measure quality may be based on differential gene expression of loci involved during spermatogenesis and sperm quality maturation. The rapid degradation of sperm after thawing affects the integrity and availability of RNA. In this study we have analyzed genes expressed in equine cryopreserved sperm, which provided an adequate amplification, specificity, and stability to be used as future reference genes in expression studies. Live spermatozoa were selected from cryopreserved semen straws derived from 20 stallions, through a discontinuous concentration gradient. RNA purification followed a combination of the organic and column extraction methods together with a deoxyribonuclease treatment. The selective amplification of nine candidate genes was undertaken using reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) carried out in a one-step mode (qRT-PCR). Specificities were tested by melting curves, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. In addition, gene stabilities were also calculated. Results indicated that five out of the nine candidate genes amplified properly (β-Actin, ATP synthase subunit beta, Protamine 1, L32 ribosomal protein and Ubiquitin B), of which β-Actin and the L32 Ribosomal protein showed the highest stability thus being the most suitable to be considered as reference genes for equine cryopreserved sperm studies, followed by the ATP synthase subunit beta and Ubiquitin B. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Vizuete G.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Diez E.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Galisteo J.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Aguera E.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for induction and synchronization of oestrus and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory mares. Fifteen mares formed the control group (C), while 26 mares were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group T1 (n = 11) were treated with oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg; Regumate®) during 11 days. Group T2 (n = 7) was intravaginally treated with 1.38 g of progesterone (CIDR®) for 11 days. In group T3 (n = 8), mares were also treated with CIDR®, but only for 8 days. All mares received PGF2α 1 day after finishing the treatment. Sonographic evaluation of follicles, pre-ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time was recorded. Progesterone and leptin levels were analysed. Results show that pre-ovulatory follicles were developed after the treatment in 88.5% of mares. However, the pre-ovulatory follicle growth was dispersal, and sometimes it was detected when treatment was not finished. While in mares treated with intravaginal device, the follicle was soon detected (1.5 ± 1.2 days and 2.3 ± 2.0 days in T2 and T3 groups, respectively), in T1 group, the pre-ovulatory follicle was detected slightly later (3.9 ± 1.6 days). The interval from the end of treatment to ovulation did not show significant differences between groups (T1 = 13.1 ± 2.5 days; T2 = 11.0 ± 3.6 days; T3 = 13.8 ± 4.3 days). The pregnancy rate was 47.4%, similar to the rate observed in group C (46.7%; p > 0.05). Initial leptin concentrations were significantly higher in mares, which restart their ovarian activity after treatments, suggesting a role in the reproduction mechanisms in mares. It could be concluded that the used treatments may be effective for oestrous induction in mares during the late phase of the seasonally anovulatory period. Furthermore, they cannot synchronize oestrus, and then, it is necessary to know the reproductive status of mares when these treatments are used for oestrous synchronization. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Perez-Marin C.C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Galisteo I.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Perez-Rico A.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Galisteo J.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

This retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed data for a total of 104 jennies reared in southern Spain over the period 1995 to 2014. Intervals to ovulation and incidence of multiple ovulation and pregnancy were charted for spontaneous, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrous cycles. In spontaneous estrous cycles, the interovulatory interval varied as a function of breed (P < 0.03) and month of ovulation (P < 0.01), and duration of estrus signs was longer in older jennies (0.04). Spontaneous cycles were also associated with higher ovulation rates from September to January (P < 0.006). When PGF2α was used to induce the estrus, not only did estrus signs last longer in old (P < 0.004) and in polyovular (0.02) jennies but old jennies also displayed significantly higher ovulation rates (P < 0.03). In postpartum jennies, no variations were observed as a function of any of the independent variables analyzed. Comparison of ovulation rates between different types of cycle revealed that postpartum jennies exhibited significantly lower ovulation rates (1.32 ± 0.07) and a lower incidence of multiple ovulation (30.4%) than spontaneous (1.62 ± 0.04, 55.0%) and PGF2α-induced (1.74 ± 0.08, 65.5%) groups. No differences were observed in the incidence of ovulation or pregnancy depending on the location of ovulation in polyovular cycles, and ovulation occurred at similar rates in the right and left ovaries. These findings shed further light on reproductive physiology in jennies and may be of value in improving animal management. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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