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Perez-Rico A.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila | Sanmartin M.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | De Santiago A.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Vega-Pla J.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Equine germplasm bank management involves not only the conservation and use of semen doses, in addition it can also be a resource to study stallion semen quality and after thawing semen properties for reproductive purposes. A possible criterion to measure quality may be based on differential gene expression of loci involved during spermatogenesis and sperm quality maturation. The rapid degradation of sperm after thawing affects the integrity and availability of RNA. In this study we have analyzed genes expressed in equine cryopreserved sperm, which provided an adequate amplification, specificity, and stability to be used as future reference genes in expression studies. Live spermatozoa were selected from cryopreserved semen straws derived from 20 stallions, through a discontinuous concentration gradient. RNA purification followed a combination of the organic and column extraction methods together with a deoxyribonuclease treatment. The selective amplification of nine candidate genes was undertaken using reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) carried out in a one-step mode (qRT-PCR). Specificities were tested by melting curves, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. In addition, gene stabilities were also calculated. Results indicated that five out of the nine candidate genes amplified properly (β-Actin, ATP synthase subunit beta, Protamine 1, L32 ribosomal protein and Ubiquitin B), of which β-Actin and the L32 Ribosomal protein showed the highest stability thus being the most suitable to be considered as reference genes for equine cryopreserved sperm studies, followed by the ATP synthase subunit beta and Ubiquitin B. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gosalvez J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ramirez M.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lopez-Fernandez C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

This study examined the dynamic response of Spermatozoa DNA Fragmentation after sex selection in bulls using a MoFlo® SX (Beckman Coulter, Miami FL) spermatozoa sorter. The dynamic response of spermatozoa DNA fragmentation refers to the changing values of SDF, i.e., rate of SDF (rSDF), when analyzed periodically over a set incubation time at 37 °C. A dynamic assessment of SDF using non-sorted and sex-sorted spermatozoa samples during 72 h of incubation at 37 °C was performed. Results showed a reduced DNA longevity in sex-sorted frozen-thawed spermatozoa, with spermatozoa DNA damage appearing between 24 h and 48 h. The baseline SDF level was higher in conventional frozen-thawed than in sex-sorted frozen-thawed spermatozoa samples; while the reverse occurred for the rSDF. The afore-mentioned result produced a crossover point between both dynamic tendencies of SDF for sex-sorted versus conventional samples. We defined this crossover point as the Crossover Positioning Time (CPT) or the time (in hours) where both curves crossover after a period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The point at which the CPT occurs could be used as an indicator of the rSDF for individual bulls after X- and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa selection. CPT values produced a window of SDF ranging between 24 h and 48 h in the present experiment. It is proposed that higher values for CPT are indicative of bulls presenting chromatin that is more resistant to the external stressors affecting spermatozoa DNA after spermatozoa sorting. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gosalvez J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ramirez M.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lopez-Fernandez C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

This study examined the static response of Spermatozoa DNA Fragmentation (SDF) after sex selection in bulls using a MoFlo® SX (Beckman Coulter, Miami FL) spermatozoa sorter to produce three different subpopulations: 1) Spermatozoa bearing X- chromosomes with a purity of 95%, 2) Spermatozoa bearing Y-chromosomes with a purity of 95%, and 3) non-viable spermatozoa. The static response of SDF refers to the baseline values observed for DNA damage when analyzed pre- and post sex-sorting. Results showed that while the baseline level SDF in pre-sorted bull spermatozoa samples ranged from 5.3% to 11% with an average of 7.9% ± 2.1%, the level of SDF obtained in X- and Y-chromosome sorted samples was much lower (3.1% ± 1.9%) and statistical differences were obtained after comparing both groups (P < 0.01). Spermatozoa containing a fragmented DNA molecule tend to be accumulated in the non-viable subpopulation. The baseline SDF level in X- and Y-chromosome sorted subpopulations is reduced, by 63% on average when compared to the values obtained in the neat semen sample. Different bulls exhibit unique SDF reduction efficiencies via the X- and Y-chromosome sex selection process. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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