Centro Investigador Del Sistema Acuifero Of Quintana Roo Ac Cindaq

Mexico City, Mexico

Centro Investigador Del Sistema Acuifero Of Quintana Roo Ac Cindaq

Mexico City, Mexico
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Kovacs S.E.,McMaster University | Reinhardt E.G.,McMaster University | Stastna M.,University of Waterloo | Coutino A.,University of Waterloo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2017

There is a lack of information on aquifer dynamics in anchialine systems, especially in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Most of our knowledge is based on "spot" measurements of the aquifer with no long-term temporal monitoring. In this study spanning four years (2012-2016), sensors (water depth and conductivity (salinity)) were deployed and positioned (-9 and -10. m) in the meteoric Water Mass (WM) close to the transition with the marine WM (halocline) in 2 monitoring sites within the Yax Chen cave system to investigate precipitation effects on the salinity of the coastal aquifer. The results show variation in salinity (<1. ppt) of the freshwater over seasonal cycles of wet and dry (approx. 6.5-7.25. ppt), depending on the position of the halocline. The aquifer response to larger precipitation events (>95. mm) such as Hurricane Ingrid (2013) and Tropical Storm Hanna (2014) shows meteoric water mass salinity rapidly increasing (approx. 6.39 to >8.6. ppt), but these perturbations have a shorter duration (weeks and days). Wavelet analysis of the salinity record indicates seasonal mixing effects in agreement with the wet and dry periods, but also seasonal effects of tidal mixing (meteoric and marine water masses) occurring on shorter time scales (diurnal and semi-diurnal). These results demonstrate that the salinity of the freshwater lens is influenced by precipitation and turbulent mixing with the marine WM. The salinity response is scaled with precipitation; larger more intense rainfall events (>95. mm) create a larger response in terms of the magnitude and duration of the salinity perturbation (>1. ppt). The balance of precipitation and its intensity controls the temporal and spatial patterning of meteoric WM salinity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Collins S.V.,McMaster University | Reinhardt E.G.,McMaster University | Werner C.L.,Woodville Karst Plain Project | Le Maillot C.,Centro Investigador Del Sistema Acuifero Of Quintana Roo Ac Cindaq | And 2 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2015

Coastal karst aquifers are an important source of potable water which can be affected by external forcing on various temporal and spatial scales (e.g. sea-level) but there is a lack of long-term data to understand their response. Sediment cores and their proxy records have been used in lakes and oceans to assess past environmental change, but haven't been extensively applied to anchialine caves where there is less known about the physical, biological and chemical processes affecting sedimentation. Over fifty sediment traps were placed in Yax Chen which is part of the Ox Bel Ha cave system near Tulum, Mexico and four water level sensors were placed in two additional cave systems (Ponderosa, Sac Actun) for comparative water table fluctuations. Data collected over the past three years (2011-2013) captured seasonal and spatial sediment flux including the effect of an intense rainfall associated with Hurricane Ingrid (September 18, 2013). The data indicates that sediment deposition was controlled by cenote size and the presence of mangrove. Areas upstream of Cenote Gemini had negligible sediment accumulation as there were few cenotes and the terrain is dominated by lowland tropical forest, while areas downstream from Cenote Gemini were dominated by mangrove forests and larger cenotes which resulted in higher sediment accumulation rates (0.014 vs. 0.22mg/cm2/day). Bi-annual sedimentation rates in 2013-2014 were higher in the months after the rainy season (0.2 vs. 0.5mg/cm2/day) indicating that cenote productivity was likely controlling sedimentation. Mangrove areas with their peat accumulations occlude the porous karst causing funneling of nutrient rich rainwater into the sunlit cenotes enhancing primary productivity and sedimentation in downstream areas. Hurricane Ingrid had little effect on the yearly sediment rate even though water table fluctuations were high (0.7m) compared to the yearly values (0.3m). This likely is due to water bypassing the cenotes with little residence time to enhance productivity and sedimentation in downstream areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Collins S.V.,McMaster University | Reinhardt E.G.,McMaster University | Werner C.L.,Woodville Karst Plain Project | Le Maillot C.,Centro Investigador Del Sistema Acuifero Of Quintana Roo Ac Cindaq | And 2 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2015

This study examines the relationship between the flooding of cenotes and formation of coastal mangrove with Holocene sea-level rise and the onset of aquatic sedimentation in Yax Chen, a cave system in Quintana Roo on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Sediment depth measurements (n= 180) were collected along 2.7. km of an underwater cave passage and three cores were radiocarbon dated to examine both the extent and timing of sedimentation in the cave. Basal radiocarbon ages (~ 4 Ka) for aquatic sediments in the cave show that Holocene sea-level rise flooded cenotes, creating sunlit open water conditions with associated mangroves on the upper karst surface. These conditions initiated abundant and widespread sedimentation in the cave. Cenote surface area controlled the long-term sediment accumulation in the cave passages through primary productivity in the sunlit open water areas of the cenotes. This primary productivity was enhanced with mangrove formation, which causes funneling of precipitation and nutrient-rich waters into the cenotes from the mangroves. Accumulation histories from the radiocarbon-dated sediment cores (n= 3) were compared with accumulation histories in previously published studies including Actun Ha, Mexico and Green Bay Cave (GBC), Bermuda. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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