Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa

São Paulo, Brazil

Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa

São Paulo, Brazil

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Thomas A.M.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Thomas A.M.,Camargo Cancer Center | Gleber-Netto F.O.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Gleber-Netto F.O.,Camargo Cancer Center | And 13 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background: Today there are more than 2 billion alcohol users and about 1.3 billion tobacco users worldwide. The chronic and heavy use of these two substances is at the heart of numerous diseases and may wreak havoc on the human oral microbiome. This study delves into the changes that alcohol and tobacco may cause on biofilms of the human oral microbiome. To do so, we used swabs to sample the oral biofilm of 22 subjects; including 9 control-individuals with no or very low consumption of alcohol and no consumption of tobacco, 7 who were chronic and heavy users of both substances and 6 active smokers that reported no significant alcohol consumption. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. DNA sequences were clustered and OTUs were assigned using the ARB SILVA database and Qiime.Results: We found no differences in species diversity and evenness among the groups. However, we found a significant decrease in species richness in only smokers and in smokers/drinkers when compared to controls. We found that Neisseria abundance was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to controls. Smokers had significant increases in Prevotella and Capnocytophaga and reductions in Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gemella when compared to the two other groups. Controls showed higher abundance of Aggregibacter, whilst smokers/drinkers had lower abundances of Fusobacteria. Samples from only smokers clustered closer together than to controls and smokers/drinkers, and also had a significant reduction in inter-group dissimilarity distances, indicating a more homogenous group than controls.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the continued use of tobacco or alcohol plus tobacco significantly reduces bacterial richness, which apparently leads to a reduction in inter-group variability, turning the respective biofilms into a more homogenous microenvironment in terms of bacterial community composition, with possible consequences for human oral diseases. © 2014 Thomas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


de Araujo E.S.S.,University of Sao Paulo | de Araujo E.S.S.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Vasques L.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Stabellini R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2014

DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A. © 2014, Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Camargo Cancer Center and National Institute of Science and Technology in Oncogenomics, Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: BMC microbiology | Year: 2015

Today there are more than 2 billion alcohol users and about 1.3 billion tobacco users worldwide. The chronic and heavy use of these two substances is at the heart of numerous diseases and may wreak havoc on the human oral microbiome. This study delves into the changes that alcohol and tobacco may cause on biofilms of the human oral microbiome. To do so, we used swabs to sample the oral biofilm of 22 subjects; including 9 control-individuals with no or very low consumption of alcohol and no consumption of tobacco, 7 who were chronic and heavy users of both substances and 6 active smokers that reported no significant alcohol consumption. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. DNA sequences were clustered and OTUs were assigned using the ARB SILVA database and Qiime.We found no differences in species diversity and evenness among the groups. However, we found a significant decrease in species richness in only smokers and in smokers/drinkers when compared to controls. We found that Neisseria abundance was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to controls. Smokers had significant increases in Prevotella and Capnocytophaga and reductions in Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gemella when compared to the two other groups. Controls showed higher abundance of Aggregibacter, whilst smokers/drinkers had lower abundances of Fusobacteria. Samples from only smokers clustered closer together than to controls and smokers/drinkers, and also had a significant reduction in inter-group dissimilarity distances, indicating a more homogenous group than controls.Our results indicate that the continued use of tobacco or alcohol plus tobacco significantly reduces bacterial richness, which apparently leads to a reduction in inter-group variability, turning the respective biofilms into a more homogenous microenvironment in terms of bacterial community composition, with possible consequences for human oral diseases.


PubMed | Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa, Accamargo Cancer Center and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology | Year: 2016

Salivary gland tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with different histological features and diverse clinical pathophysiology. They account for about 3% of all head and neck tumors. Apoptosis plays an important role during morphogenesis of glandular structures, including that of the salivary gland. Recent studies have demonstrated that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of apoptosis-related miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34) and their target mRNAs in 25 pleomorphic adenomas, 23 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 10 non-neoplastic salivary gland samples by real-time RT-PCR. We observed upregulation of miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34a in pleomorphic adenomas. The expression of miR-21 and miR-34a was upregulated in 91 and 74% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, respectively. Downregulation of miR-20a was observed in 75% of pleomorphic adenomas and in 57% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. APAF1, BAX, BCL2, BID, CASP2, CASP8, DIABLO , and TP53 transcripts were upregulated in both tumor types. BAD transcripts were upregulated in pleomorphic adenomas. CASP3 and CASP6 transcripts were upregulated in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. BCL2, CASP2, CASP6, and CASP8 proteins were mostly absent in mucoepidermoid carcinomas but expressed in few cells in pleomorphic adenomas. Our study provides evidence of alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulating miRNAs in salivary gland tumors, suggesting possible involvement of these microRNAs in salivary gland tumorigenesis.


PubMed | Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa, New York Genome Center and Rockefeller University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2016

In humans, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) exist as two unique populations characterized by expression of CD1c and CD141. cDCs arise from increasingly restricted but well-defined bone marrow progenitors that include the common DC progenitor that differentiates into the pre-cDC, which is the direct precursor of cDCs. In this study, we show that pre-cDCs in humans are heterogeneous, consisting of two distinct populations of precursors that are precommitted to become either CD1c

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