Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Costa E.T.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Barnabe G.F.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Li M.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Dias A.A.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 17 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) represents an obstacle for cancer diagnosis and treatment, but little is known about its functional role in cancer progression. The A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 23 (ADAM23) gene is epigenetically silenced in different types of tumors, and silencing is often associated with advanced disease and metastasis. Here, we show that invasive breast tumors exhibit significant ADAM23-ITH and that this heterogeneity is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrate that while loss of ADAM23 expression enhances invasion, it causes a severe proliferative deficiency and is not itself sufficient to trigger metastasis. Rather, we observed that, in ADAM23-heterotypic environments, ADAM23-negative cells promote tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing the proliferation and invasion of adjacent A23-positive cells through the production of LGI4 (Leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 4) and nitric oxide (NO). Ablation of LGI4 and NO in A23-negative cells significantly attenuates A23-positive cell proliferation and invasion. Our work denotes a driving role of ADAM23-ITH during disease progression, shifting the malignant phenotype from the cellular to the tissue level. Our findings also provide insights for therapeutic intervention, enforcing the need to ascertain ITH to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 24 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.70.


Costa E.T.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Barnabe G.F.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Li M.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Dias A.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 16 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) represents an obstacle for cancer diagnosis and treatment, but little is known about its functional role in cancer progression. The A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 23 (ADAM23) gene is epigenetically silenced in different types of tumors, and silencing is often associated with advanced disease and metastasis. Here, we show that invasive breast tumors exhibit significant ADAM23-ITH and that this heterogeneity is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrate that while loss of ADAM23 expression enhances invasion, it causes a severe proliferative deficiency and is not itself sufficient to trigger metastasis. Rather, we observed that, in ADAM23-heterotypic environments, ADAM23-negative cells promote tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing the proliferation and invasion of adjacent A23-positive cells through the production of LGI4 (Leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 4) and nitric oxide (NO). Ablation of LGI4 and NO in A23-negative cells significantly attenuates A23-positive cell proliferation and invasion. Our work denotes a driving role of ADAM23-ITH during disease progression, shifting the malignant phenotype from the cellular to the tissue level. Our findings also provide insights for therapeutic intervention, enforcing the need to ascertain ITH to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy.


Thomas A.M.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Thomas A.M.,Camargo Cancer Center | Gleber-Netto F.O.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Gleber-Netto F.O.,Camargo Cancer Center | And 13 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background: Today there are more than 2 billion alcohol users and about 1.3 billion tobacco users worldwide. The chronic and heavy use of these two substances is at the heart of numerous diseases and may wreak havoc on the human oral microbiome. This study delves into the changes that alcohol and tobacco may cause on biofilms of the human oral microbiome. To do so, we used swabs to sample the oral biofilm of 22 subjects; including 9 control-individuals with no or very low consumption of alcohol and no consumption of tobacco, 7 who were chronic and heavy users of both substances and 6 active smokers that reported no significant alcohol consumption. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. DNA sequences were clustered and OTUs were assigned using the ARB SILVA database and Qiime.Results: We found no differences in species diversity and evenness among the groups. However, we found a significant decrease in species richness in only smokers and in smokers/drinkers when compared to controls. We found that Neisseria abundance was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to controls. Smokers had significant increases in Prevotella and Capnocytophaga and reductions in Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gemella when compared to the two other groups. Controls showed higher abundance of Aggregibacter, whilst smokers/drinkers had lower abundances of Fusobacteria. Samples from only smokers clustered closer together than to controls and smokers/drinkers, and also had a significant reduction in inter-group dissimilarity distances, indicating a more homogenous group than controls.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the continued use of tobacco or alcohol plus tobacco significantly reduces bacterial richness, which apparently leads to a reduction in inter-group variability, turning the respective biofilms into a more homogenous microenvironment in terms of bacterial community composition, with possible consequences for human oral diseases. © 2014 Thomas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


de Araujo E.S.S.,University of Sao Paulo | de Araujo E.S.S.,Centro Internacional Of Pesquisa | Vasques L.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Stabellini R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2014

DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A. © 2014, Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica. All rights reserved.

Discover hidden collaborations