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Vazquez-Mendoza P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Miranda-Romero L.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Aranda-Osorio G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Burgueno-Ferreira J.A.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo | Salem A.Z.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

In production systems of prickly pear fruit and prickly pear cactus, significant amounts of pruned material, which could be used as an ingredient in animal feeding, is generated. The aim of this study was to measure the nutrient content, fermentation kinetics and in vitro digestibility of eleven cultivars of cladodes of prickly pear cactus. The fermentation was measured indirectly using the gas production technique, where 500 mg of DM substrate (prickly pear cactus cultivars) were placed in amber glass flasks of 125 mL with 90 mL of ruminal inoculum under a continuous flow of CO2. Flasks were hermetically wrapped up with a rubber stopper and a metal ring, and were placed in a water bath at 39 °C. The fermentation gas pressure was measured using a monometer at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 38, 50 and 72 h incubation. Results show that the chemical composition ranged between (g kg−1 DM): 64 and 160 g kg−1 dry matter (DM), 137–293 g kg−1 DM ash, 52–101 g kg−1 DM crude protein, 3–22 g kg−1 DM ether extract, 251–393 neutral detergent fiber and 132–192 acid detergent fiber. The gas volume was different (p < 0.05) among cultivars, with the Red Vigor cultivar having the largest volume at 378 mL g−1 DM. The highest volume of gas was produced during the first 24 h in on average 67 % of the total produced. The in vitro DM digestibility displayed values of up to 82 % in the Roja Pelota cultivar. It can be concluded that the cladodes of prickly pear cactus from different cultivars can be used in animal feed for its good rumen fermentation characteristics. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Hernandez-Estrada Z.J.,CINVESTAV | Figueroa J.D.C.,CINVESTAV | Rayas-Duarte P.,Oklahoma State University | Pena R.J.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2012

The effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits on viscoelastic properties of wheat kernels was investigated using creep tests with generalized Kelvin-Voigt model (r 2 ≈ 0.94; P < 0.0001). Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 affected the creep coefficients in Glu-1 loci. Regarding LMW-GS, the locus Glu-A3 had highest influence on creep followed by Glu-B3; Glu-D3 did not showed differences. In general, the modulus of elasticity E 0 ≈ 242 MPa and viscosity was μ 0 ≈ 1.6 × 10 7 MPa·s. Higher elastic moduli and viscosity were found in HMW-GS and LMW-GS of good quality compared to the poor quality performance genotypic groups. Samples with subunit Glu-A1 null presented lower elastic modulus and viscosity compared to Glu-A1 1 and 2 *. Glu-B1 13 + 16 presented higher elastic modulus and viscosity, which is associated with good quality performance. The elastic moduli, especially E 0 were positively correlated with SDS-volume and rheological properties. This methodology can be applied to few kernels is easy, rapid, and nondestructive.© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cruz E.M.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Rangel E.E.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Mir H.E.V.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Bautista R.J.P.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo
Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to identify the combinations and allelic variants of high and low molecular weight glutenins (HMWG and LMWG) to determine their effects on the rheological characteristics of dough of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A set of 98 lines derived by single seed descent from F2 to F6 of the cross 'Bacanora T88 x Salamanca' was used. Genotypes were sown at Celaya, Guanajuato, México, 2008 during the Winter-Spring cycle. Variables evaluated were: mixing time, mixing stability, tolerance to overmixing, dough strength and the tenacity/extensibility ratio. Both HMWG and LMWG were identified with sodium dodecyl sulfate in polyacrylamide gel. It was found that loci Glu-B1, Glu-D1 and Glu-B3 affected both dough strength and extensibility. The combination 2*, 7+9, 5 +10, c, g, b was associated to strong gluten and excellent extensibility, suitable for bread-making; in contrast, combination *, 7+9, 2+12, c, g, b showed weak and extensible gluten, useful for manufacturing cookies and tortillas. The combination *, 7+9, 2+12 c, j, b showed lowest dough strength and *, 7+8, 2+12 c, j, b showed the highest extensibility. Alleles 7+9 and 5+10 were associated with higher gluten strength than alleles 7+8 and 2+12. The highest tenacity and lowest ratio tenacity/extensibility values were presented by the allele j, compared to g allele. Therefore, by recombination of progenitors and selection of specific alleles it is possible to obtain bread wheat genotypes with specific quality of dough.

Sanchez J.J.G.,University of Guadalajara | de La Cruz L.L.,University of Guadalajara | Vidal V.A.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias | Ron J.P.,University of Guadalajara | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: Teosinte species are the closest relatives of maize and represent an important but increasingly rare genetic resource for maize improvement and the study of evolution by domestication. Three morphologically and ecologically distinct teosinte populations were recently discovered in M é xico. The taxonomic status of these rare and endangered populations was investigated by detailed comparisons to previously characterized wild Zea species.Methods: Three new teosinte populations were compared to known teosinte taxa on the basis of morphological, ecogeographic, cytological, and molecular characteristics. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses were performed using morphological and molecular data, respectively.Key results: The newly discovered populations are distinct from each other and from other Zea species to represent three new entities based on their unique combinations of morphological, ecological, ploidy, and DNA markers. A perennial diploid population from Nayarit is distinguished by early maturing plants, and having male inflorescences with few tassel branches and long spikelets. A perennial tetraploid population from Michoac á n is characterized by tall and late maturing plants, and having male inflorescences with many branches. An annual diploid population from Oaxaca is characterized by having male inflorescences with fewer branches and longer spikelets than those found in the sister taxa Z. luxurians and Z. nicaraguensis, plants with high thermal requirements, and very long seed dormancy.Conclusions: Evidence from multiple independent sources suggests placement of the three new populations of teosinte as distinct entities within section Luxuriantes of the genus Zea. However, more extensive DNA marker or sequence data are required to resolve the taxonomy of this genus. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

Chen C.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo | Mitchell S.E.,Cornell University | Elshire R.J.,Cornell University | Buckler E.S.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing both medical and biological research through generation of massive SNP data sets for identifying heritable genome variation underlying key traits, from rare human diseases to important agronomic phenotypes in crop species. We evaluated the performance of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), one of the emerging NGS-based platforms, for genotyping two economically important conifer species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white spruce (Picea glauca). Both species have very large genomes (>20,000 Mbp), are highly heterozygous, and lack reference sequences. From a small set (six accessions each) of independent replicated DNA samples and a 48-plex read depth, we obtained ~60,000 SNPs per species. After stringent filtering, we obtained 17,765 and 17,845 high-coverage SNPs without missing data for lodgepole pine and white spruce, respectively. Our results demonstrated that GBS is a robust and suitable method for genotyping conifers. The application of GBS to forest tree breeding and genomic selection is discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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