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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2.3;INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2008

EELA-2 aims to build, on the current EELA e-Infrastructure, a high capacity, production-quality, scalable Grid Facility providing round-the-clock, worldwide access to distributed computing, storage and network resources for a wide spectrum of applications from European and Latin American scientific communities. The project will provide an empowered Grid Facility with versatile services fulfilling application requirements and ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-Infrastructure beyond the term of the project. The specific EELA-2 objectives are: - Build a Grid Facility by: Expanding the current EELA e-Infrastructure to consist of more production sites mobilising more computing nodes and more storage space, at start of the project and to further grow storage over the duration of the project; Providing, in collaboration with related projects (e.g. EGEE), the full set of Grid Services needed by all types of scientific applications; Supporting applications various types (from classical off-line data processing up to control and data acquisition of scientific instruments), selected against well defined criteria (including grid added value, suitability for Grid deployment, outreach/potential impact); - Ensure the Grid Facility sustainability: Through the already established and new contacts with policy/decision makers, collaborating with RedCLARA and NRENs and supporting the ongoing creation of e-Science Initiatives and/or National Grid initiatives (NGI). Building the support of the e-Infrastructure to provide a complete set of Global Services from a Central Operation Centre and to pave the way for the creation of Regional Operation Centres in Latin America: Attracting new applications; Making available knowledge of EELA-2 Grid Facility to all potential users, developers, and decision makers through an extensive Training and Dissemination program; Creating knowledge repositories federated with the EGEE ones.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-4-01 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2010

Detection methods are the first tools used by national plant protection organisations (NPPO) and inspection services in order to find incursions of quarantine plant pathogens or pests (Q-pests) across a border, a crucial step to implement Council Directive 2000/29/EC. This is often done visually in the first instance, with support from a laboratory for confirmatory testing and subsequent monitoring. Reliance on laboratory testing causes significant delays when action is only taken on the return of results from the laboratory to which the samples were sent. Thus, there is a real need for rapid, simple and robust detection methods that can be deployed by NPPOs in the field with inspection services to enable early detection of Q-pests. The Q-detect consortium aims to develop detection methods based on biochemical (detecting volatile organic compounds [VOC] and nucleic acid), acoustic (including resonance), remote imaging (incorporating spectral and automated data analysis) and pest trapping (insect pests and pathogen vectors) techniques. The careful selection of traded products (primarily potato and forestry/trees) ensures the methods will be developed on high priority targets for the EU such as the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), potato brown rot (Ralstonia solanacearum) and potato ring rot (Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. Sepedonicus), Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and a range of whitefly transmitted viruses. The diversity of targets enables the Q-detect consortium to work on suites of complementary techniques; this is of particular importance since the diverse range of targets listed in Directive 2000/29/EC means no single detection method will be suitable for all Q-pests. Critically, NPPOs and third country institutes are partners, which will enable testing, and validation of methods at real outbreak sites where these are absent in the EU. SME partners ensure access to technology and routes for exploitation after the project ends.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-4-08 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2009

VALORAM aims at exploring and valorizing Andean soil microbial diversity for the development of alternative, efficient technologies and crop management practices to improve the sustainability and productivity of Andean cropping systems benefiting rural farming households. The project will focus on potato because of its global importance for small-scale farmers in the central Andean highlands. The participants will use metagenomic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic analysis to identify novel traits of microorganisms and characterize beneficial soil microbial communities, to achieve the objective. The project specific aims are to (1) explore the agro-ecosystem functions of soil microbes in potato-based cropping systems and preserve the components of this microflora in international culture collections, (2) elucidate the role of rhizosphere microorganisms and communities in promoting plant growth, suppressing soil borne disease and priming plant biotic defenses, developing eco-efficient technologies/products for sustainable crop production systems, (3) develop applied technologies and knowledge-based systems to improve the sustainability and resilience of potato based cropping systems for the benefit of the indigenous farmers and (4) promote the exchange of scientific knowledge and technologies among partners and the LA scientific community to impulse research in this area and support the continuous development of crop production technologies. The strategy for VALORAM implementation is to engage LA and EU partners in developing and further stengthening collaborative research activities in order to sustainably improve potato-based systems. This is supported by a multidisciplinary team of experts with highly complementary skills and based on a robust management structure with an efficient workshop and communication programme. The results will directly benefit the local partners and may also contribute to increase the productivity of organic potato production in the EU.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-4-01 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2009

Development of accurate identification tools for plant pathogens and pests is vital to support European Plant Health Policies. For this project Council Directive 2000/29/EC is important, listing some 275 organisms for which protective measures against introduction into and their spread within the Community needs to be taken. Those threats are now greater than ever because of the increases in the volumes, commodity types and origins of trade, the introduction of new crops, the continued expansion of the EU and the impact of climate change. Currently identifying pathogens (in particular new emerging diseases) requires a staff with specialised skills in all disciplines (mycology, bacteriology, etc.); which is only possible within big centralised laboratory facilities. Taxonomy, phytopathology and other fields which are vital for sustaining sound public policy on phytosanitary issues are threatened with extinction. Modern molecular identification/detection techniques may tackle the decline in skills since they often require much less specialist skills to perform, are more amenable for routine purposes and can be used for a whole range of different target organisms. Recently DNA barcoding has arisen as a robust and standardised approach to species identification. QBOL wants now to make DNA barcoding available for plant health diagnostics and to focus on strengthening the link between traditional and molecular taxonomy as a sustainable diagnostic resource. Within QBOL collections harbouring plantpathogenic Q-organisms will be made available. Informative genes from selected species on the EU Directive and EPPO lists will be DNA barcoded from vouchered specimens. The sequences, together with taxonomic features, will be included in a new internet-based database system. A validation procedure on developed protocols and the database will be undertaken across worldwide partners to ensure robustness of procedures for use in a distributed network of laboratories across Europe


PubMed | Colorado State University, Centro Internacional Of La Papa, Cornell University, University of Missouri and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of botany | Year: 2016

Interspecific reproductive barriers (IRBs) often prevent hybridization between closely related species in sympatry. In the tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon), interspecific interactions between natural sympatric populations have not been evaluated previously. In this study, we assessed IRBs between members of the tomato clade from nine sympatric sites in Peru.Coflowering was assessed at sympatric sites in Peru. Using previously collected seeds from sympatric sites in Peru, we evaluated premating prezygotic (floral morphology), postmating prezygotic (pollen-tube growth), and postzygotic barriers (fruit and seed development) between sympatric species in common gardens. Pollen-tube growth and seed development were examined in reciprocal crosses between sympatric species.We confirmed coflowering of sympatric species at five sites in Peru. We found three types of postmating prezygotic IRBs during pollen-pistil interactions: (1) unilateral pollen-tube rejection between pistils of self-incompatible species and pollen of self-compatible species; (2) potential conspecific pollen precedence in a cross between two self-incompatible species; and (3) failure of pollen tubes to target ovules. In addition, we found strong postzygotic IRBs that prevented normal seed development in 11 interspecific crosses, resulting in seed-like structures containing globular embryos and aborted endosperm and, in some cases, overgrown endothelium. Viable seed and FWe have identified diverse prezygotic and postzygotic IRBs that would prevent hybridization between sympatric wild tomato species, but interspecific hybridization is possible in a few cases.


Rauscher G.,Cornell University | Rauscher G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Simko I.,Cornell University | Simko I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Genetic resistance is a valuable tool in the fight against late blight of potatoes but little is known about the stability and specificity of quantitative resistance including the effect of defeated major resistance genes. In the present study we investigated the effect of different isolates of Phytophthora infestans on the mode of action of RPi-ber, an R-gene originating from Solanum berthaultii. The experiments were conducted on progenies derived from two reciprocal inter-specific backcrosses of Solanum tuberosum and S. berthaultii. The plant-pathogen interaction was tested in diverse environments including field, greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. The RPi-ber gene provided complete resistance against a US8 isolate of P. infestans in all trials. When isolates compatible with RPi-ber were used for inoculation, a smaller, but significant resistance effect was consistently detected in the same map position as the R-gene. This indicates that this R-gene provides a residual resistance effect, and/or that additional resistance loci are located in this genomic region of chromosome X. Additional quantitative resistance loci (QRL) were identified in the analyzed progenies. While some of the QRL (such as those near TG130 on chromosome III) were effective against several isolates of the pathogen, others were isolate specific. With a single exception, the S. berthaultii alleles were associated with a decrease in disease severity. Resistance loci reported in the present study co-locate with previously reported R-genes and QRL to P. infestans and other pathogens. © 2010 US Government.


Lacey L.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kroschel J.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa | Arthurs S.P.,University of Florida | de la Rosa F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2010

The natural occurrence of specific pathogens and biopesticides applied in an inundative fashion can contribute significantly to control of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. Most of the research conducted and practices used for control of P. operculella use one species of granulovirus and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The P. operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) has the potential to play a significant role in the integrated management of the pest in stored tubers as well as in field crops. At the same time, Bt has been used successfully against P. operculella infestations in the field and in stored tubers. PhopGV and Bt are safe for application personnel and for the food products; in addition, they do not affect beneficial insects and other nontarget organisms. Other natural insecticides are the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus, botanicals, sex pheromones and physical measures for P. operculella control in stored tubers. The implementation of biopesticides will ultimately depend on an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the public, who will be the main drivers for their use and commercialization.


Rodriguez Pardina P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Luque A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Nome C.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Lopez Colomba E.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2012

We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus infecting sweet potato in the Northeastern region of Argentina. Sequence comparisons indicated that the isolate under study has the highest nucleotide sequence identity (93.6 %) with Sweet potato leaf curl virus Puerto Rico. According to the current taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification the Argentinean isolate would correspond to a new strain of Sweet potato leaf curl virus. © 2012 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.


Horgan F.G.,University of New Brunswick | Quiring D.T.,University of New Brunswick | Lagnaoui A.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa | Salas A.R.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa | And 2 more authors.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

Tuber resistance can contribute to current management strategies against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in field and stored potatoes. Wild potatoes represent a potential source of novel resistance traits against the moth. We assessed resistance in three wild potato species, Solanum multiinterruptum Bitt., Solanum sparsipilum (Bitt.) Juz. & Buk., and Solanum wittmackii Bitt. against neonate and developing tuber moth larvae. All three species had high levels of resistance but accessions of S. sparsipilum and S. wittmackii were significantly more resistant. Resistance in S. multiinterruptum was generally concentrated in the tuber periderm, whereas in S. sparsipilum and S. wittmackii resistance was mainly cortex-based. Unidentified cortex-resistance factors in all three species reduced survival and increased larval and pupal development times, but had no apparent effects on the pupal weights of survivors. A high proportion of larvae abandoned or died within tubers of S. wittmackii, which has particularly high levels of unidentified cortex-based defenses. Resistance decreased in S. multiinterruptum and S. sparsipilum as tubers sprouted but was more stable in S. wittmackii. Periderm-based resistance was more stable than cortex-based resistance in S. multiinterruptum during sprouting. In contrast, cortex-based resistance was stable in tubers of S. wittmackii as these sprouted, and resistance may have increased on some older sprouting tubers. Solanum multiinterruptum and S. sparsipilum are proposed as potential sources of resistance against the potato tuber moth. © 2010 The Authors. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata © 2010 The Netherlands Entomological Society.


Fernandez E.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa | Gutarra L.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa | Kreuze J.,Centro Internacional Of La Papa
Revista Peruana de Biologia | Year: 2015

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease that attacks important agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, banana, among others, causing serious yield losses. Control of R. solanacearum is difficult because of its wide range of alternate hosts, its long survival in soil, its biological and genetic variation, the lack of natural resistance sources and the insufficiency of the appropriate chemical control measures. Quorum sensing is the term that describes the phenomenon whereby the accumulation of molecules allows bacteria to know the number of bacteria found in the environment (population density). R. solanacearum has a quorum sensing system for the regulation of the expression of virulence genes; the molecule 3-OH-PAME is the self-regulatory signal. The molecule BHPMEH hydrolyzes 3-OH-PAME nullifying the signal of virulence, and thus, the quorum sensing communication in R. solanacearum. In order to evaluate the βhpmeh gene we designed two vectors that express this gene under the control of two different promoters. Both vectors were verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Agroinfiltration assays were used to analyze gene expression and the effect against R. solanacearum in potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves. The results of the transient expression experiments showed that the expression of gene βhpmeh caused a delay in the appearance of symptoms of bacterial wilt and thus is a good candidate for whole genetic plant transformation. © Los Autores.

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