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Montoya C.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Lalles J.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beebe S.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Food Research International

This article proposes a new way to improve the protein quality of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is based on the natural variability found in the different types of phaseolin, its main storage protein (40-50% of the total protein). Despite the fact that it is deficient in methionine content, phaseolin still represents the main source of that amino acid in the seed. More than 40 genetic variants, differing in subunit number (2-6) and molecular weight (40-54 kDa) have been analyzed. The similarity of the amino acid composition among phaseolins, suggests that a nutritional improvement cannot be expected from that side. Conversely, important variation in phaseolin susceptibility to proteolysis (ranging from 57% to 96% after cooking) has been observed, increasing the theoretical availability of methionine by up to 37%. Therefore, breeding programs based on highly-digestible phaseolin types could lead to the production of beans with higher protein quality. © 2009. Source

Lundgren J.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lopez-Lavalle L.A.B.,Aereo | Parsa S.,Aereo | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,Aereo | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Journal of Pest Science

In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received limited attention. Till present, knowledge of A. socialis natural enemies is restricted to occasional records of predators and parasitoids. In this study, we developed PCR primer sets specific for the cassava whitefly, A. socialis, to identify their predator community in Colombian cassava. Eleven percent of 586 predator specimens (representing 131 taxa from 29 families) tested positive for cassava whitefly DNA. Of the 21 predator taxa that consumed cassava whiteflies, an unidentified netwing beetle (Lycidae), an unidentified spider species (Araneae), Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Cereaochrysa sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and a Leucochrysa sp. (Chrysopidae) were the taxa that consumed cassava whiteflies most frequently under field conditions. Two abundant predators in the system, Delphastus sp. (Coccinellidae) and the long-legged fly, Condylostylus sp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), were both positive for whitefly DNA, but did not have the strongest trophic linkage to the pest relative to other predators. This study shows that a diverse predator community affects cassava whitefly in southern Colombia, and provides the groundwork for the design of cassava production systems with minimal pesticide inputs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA). Source

Lohr B.,Research Center Palmira | Vasquez-Ordonez A.A.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Lopez-Lavalle L.A.B.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical

During studies to adapt pheromone trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum to the special coconut growing conditions at the Colombian Pacific coast, 152 atypically-colored specimens were captured in a total collection of 53,802 of the normally completely black weevil. Five specimens had the typical coloration of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an invasive species recently introduced to Aruba and Curação. A regional expansion of this invasion to the South American continent was feared and all atypical specimens were submitted to taxonomic analysis. Both conventional and molecular methods were employed. Conventional taxonomics confirmed the samples as belonging to R. palmarum but registered undescribed and species-Atypical morphological variability in the subgular suture (wide vs. narrow), the ratio between intraocular distance and width of antennal scrobes (>0.35 vs. < 0.29) and the indentation of the mandibles (up to three mandibular teeth vs. bilobed). Molecular analysis placed all samples inspected, black and reddish alike, firmly within the R. palmarum group and the hypothesis of having inter-specific hybrids was rejected using co-dominant single sequence repeat markers with allelic specificity for both species. © 2015 Löhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Fonseca S.M.P.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Pachon H.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion

Food security is sufficient access to safe and nutritious foods to satisfy nutritional needs and personal preferences, and to lead a healthy and active life. The current study evaluated food security in 302 families with school-age children living in a rural municipality in Cauca, Colombia, and factors associated with food security. Families were participating in an evaluation of the nutrition impact of an intervention with nutritionally improved maize. A12-item food security scale was applied to the household head, as well as a sociodemographic survey. Families were classified as food secure, or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Among households, 44,37% were classified as food secure and 55,63% as food insecure (with 41,39% as mildly insecure, 12,25% as moderately insecure and 1,99% as severely insecure). Food-insecure families had fewer persons working relative to the total individuals in the home, 4 or fewer services or assets, and children with a reduced appetite, in comparison with food-secure households. In conclusion, more than half of the sample was food insecure; the factors associated with food insecurity relate to family income. Source

Kordas K.,Pennsylvania State University | Centeno Z.Y.F.,Instituto Colombiano Of Bienestar Familiar | Pachon H.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Soto A.Z.J.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Journal of Nutrition

Overweight and micronutrient deficiencies have manifested in the same individuals. This study investigated the association among iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and weight status among nonpregnant Colombian females aged 13-49 y (n = 3267). Data from the 2005 National Survey of the Nutrition Situation were used. The prevalence of ID (plasma ferritin <12.0 μg/L; individuals with CRP >0.012 g/L excluded) and anemia (altitude-adjusted hemoglobin <120 g/L) was estimated separately. The likelihood of having ID or anemia was tested as a function of overweight (BMI-age Z-score 1-1.9 SD for 13-17 y, BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 for 18-49 y) and obesity (≥2 SD for 13-17 y, ≥30 kg/m2 for 18-49 y) using multivariate logistic regressions accounting for survey design. Additionally, demographic predictors of combined oveweight/obesity with ID or anemia were identified. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2 and 13.1%, respectively, whereas that of ID and anemia was 16.1 and 32.5%, respectively. Contrary to previous reports, overweight and obese women had a lower likelihood of anemia [OR (95% CI) = 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) and 0.8 (0.6, 1.0), respectively] than normal-weight women. Overweight/obesity combined with ID or anemia was present among 6.3 and 12.8% of women, respectively. Although overweight and obesity were associated with a lower likelihood of anemia, a sizeable group of women was identified as experiencing both over- and undernutrition. Because of the potential for exacerbated health problems in the presence of over- and undernutrition, these conditions should continue to be monitored. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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