Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical

Cali, Colombia

Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical

Cali, Colombia
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Montoya C.A.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Lalles J.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beebe S.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Leterme P.,Prairie Swine Center Inc.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

This article proposes a new way to improve the protein quality of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is based on the natural variability found in the different types of phaseolin, its main storage protein (40-50% of the total protein). Despite the fact that it is deficient in methionine content, phaseolin still represents the main source of that amino acid in the seed. More than 40 genetic variants, differing in subunit number (2-6) and molecular weight (40-54 kDa) have been analyzed. The similarity of the amino acid composition among phaseolins, suggests that a nutritional improvement cannot be expected from that side. Conversely, important variation in phaseolin susceptibility to proteolysis (ranging from 57% to 96% after cooking) has been observed, increasing the theoretical availability of methionine by up to 37%. Therefore, breeding programs based on highly-digestible phaseolin types could lead to the production of beans with higher protein quality. © 2009.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-2-09 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2010

Despite the growing efforts of research and extension programs on the promotion of conservation agriculture (CA), there has been limited success with adopting CA on smallholder farms in Africa. African farming systems are highly heterogeneous in terms of agro-ecological, socio-economical and cultural environments and opportunities for CA necessarily require local adaptation. Simulation models and modelling frameworks may be used to assist our ability to better understand and target innovative technologies such as CA within complex farming systems. Over 30 months, the overall objective of this project is to assess and learn jointly from past and on-going CA experiences under which conditions and to what extent does CA strengthen the socio-economic position of landholders in Africa. For this purpose, a consortium comprising 10 highly experienced, complementary European, African and International partners has been assembled. It will develop an up-to-date knowledge database on CA practices in Africa. Biophysical, socioeconomic and conceptual models of innovation systems will be applied to a series of case studies across five regions in Africa to analyze the impact and adoption of CA at different scales (field, farm, region). This will facilitate the identification of pathways to make models readily applicable for decision-makers in different African regions and under different conditions. It will allow to set the agenda for future research, development and promotion of CA in Africa. Dissemination, networking and training will make the project outcomes highly accessible to the principal stakeholders (researchers, public and private extension services, farmer organisations, national and regional policymakers, private sector).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 4.77M | Year: 2009

The proposal addresses Topic ENV.2008. Addressing deforestation in tropical areas: greenhouse gas emissions, socio-economic drivers and impacts, and policy options for emissions reduction. The overall goal of the project is to contribute to the development and evaluation of mechanisms and the institutions needed at multiple levels for changing stakeholder behaviour to slow tropical deforestation rates and hence reduce GHG emissions. This will be achieved through enhancing our understanding of the social, cultural, economic and ecological drivers of forest transition in selected case study areas in Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. This understanding will facilitate the identification and assessment of viable policy options addressing the drivers of deforestation and their consistency with policy approaches on avoided deforestation, such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and degradation (REDD), currently being discussed in UNFCCC and other relevant international fora. At the same time, ways of improving the spatial quantification of land use change and the associated changes in GHG fluxes will be developed, thereby improving the accounting of GHG emissions resulting from land use change in tropical forest margins and peatlands. This will allow the analysis of scenarios of the local impacts of potential international climate change policies on GHG emission reductions, land use, and livelihoods in selected case study areas, the results of which will be used to develop new negotiation support tools for use with stakeholders at international, national and local scales to explore a basket of options for incorporating REDD into post-2012 climate agreements. The project will provide a unique link between international policy-makers and stakeholders on the ground who will be required to change their behaviour regarding deforestation, thereby contributing to well-informed policy-making at the international level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE.2010.4-03 | Award Amount: 1.21M | Year: 2011

The project objective is to establish a LAC-UE platform bringing together regional and continental organizations involved in research funding and implementation, as well as other relevant stakeholders from the public and private sector and the civil society, in an effort to generate relevant information for the design and implementation of specific plans and projects, included the needed R&D and set the basis for the establishments of an enabling policy and institutional environment, as well as, for the development and consolidation of the KBBE in both the regions. To achieve this aim the project activities are oriented to generate information relevant to KBBE related issues in LAC, to help establish a strategic reflection and analysis on KBBE opportunities and limitations in the region, to stimulate KBBE related research and development ALC-UE cooperation, and to insert the KBBE theme in ALC policy agendas. The proposed structure to implement these activities include (i) a partner consortium of ALC and EU organizations directly involved in different aspects of R&D and implementation of KBBE concepts in both regions, which will assume the projects operational responsibilities, with the French CIRAD as consortium coordinator, and (ii) a broader array of stakeholders (institutions public and private playing key roles in different aspects of the KBBE: R&D, policy advice, advocacy, key sectors representation, etc.) which will participate as platform members in accordance to their interests and areas of expertise. This platform will constitute the cornerstone of the project and will be convened regularly during the project to analyze information and options, identify possible scenarios and R&D and policy agendas, and institutional and other issues that could emerge as the discussion evolves. (iii) strategic and macro guidance of the project will be the responsibility of a Steering Committee integrated by people from ALC and UE with recognized experience and expe

Lundgren J.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lopez-Lavalle L.A.B.,Aereo | Parsa S.,Aereo | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,Aereo | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received limited attention. Till present, knowledge of A. socialis natural enemies is restricted to occasional records of predators and parasitoids. In this study, we developed PCR primer sets specific for the cassava whitefly, A. socialis, to identify their predator community in Colombian cassava. Eleven percent of 586 predator specimens (representing 131 taxa from 29 families) tested positive for cassava whitefly DNA. Of the 21 predator taxa that consumed cassava whiteflies, an unidentified netwing beetle (Lycidae), an unidentified spider species (Araneae), Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Cereaochrysa sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and a Leucochrysa sp. (Chrysopidae) were the taxa that consumed cassava whiteflies most frequently under field conditions. Two abundant predators in the system, Delphastus sp. (Coccinellidae) and the long-legged fly, Condylostylus sp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), were both positive for whitefly DNA, but did not have the strongest trophic linkage to the pest relative to other predators. This study shows that a diverse predator community affects cassava whitefly in southern Colombia, and provides the groundwork for the design of cassava production systems with minimal pesticide inputs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA).

Kordas K.,Pennsylvania State University | Centeno Z.Y.F.,Instituto Colombiano Of Bienestar Familiar | Pachon H.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Soto A.Z.J.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Overweight and micronutrient deficiencies have manifested in the same individuals. This study investigated the association among iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and weight status among nonpregnant Colombian females aged 13-49 y (n = 3267). Data from the 2005 National Survey of the Nutrition Situation were used. The prevalence of ID (plasma ferritin <12.0 μg/L; individuals with CRP >0.012 g/L excluded) and anemia (altitude-adjusted hemoglobin <120 g/L) was estimated separately. The likelihood of having ID or anemia was tested as a function of overweight (BMI-age Z-score 1-1.9 SD for 13-17 y, BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 for 18-49 y) and obesity (≥2 SD for 13-17 y, ≥30 kg/m2 for 18-49 y) using multivariate logistic regressions accounting for survey design. Additionally, demographic predictors of combined oveweight/obesity with ID or anemia were identified. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2 and 13.1%, respectively, whereas that of ID and anemia was 16.1 and 32.5%, respectively. Contrary to previous reports, overweight and obese women had a lower likelihood of anemia [OR (95% CI) = 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) and 0.8 (0.6, 1.0), respectively] than normal-weight women. Overweight/obesity combined with ID or anemia was present among 6.3 and 12.8% of women, respectively. Although overweight and obesity were associated with a lower likelihood of anemia, a sizeable group of women was identified as experiencing both over- and undernutrition. Because of the potential for exacerbated health problems in the presence of over- and undernutrition, these conditions should continue to be monitored. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Pypers P.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT | Sanginga J.-M.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Kasereka B.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Walangululu M.,Catholic University of Bukavu | Vanlauwe B.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT
Field Crops Research | Year: 2011

Smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are confronted by low productivity and limited investment capacity in nutrient inputs. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) aims at increased productivity through the combined use of improved germplasm, judicious fertilizer application and organic matter management, adapted to the local farming conditions. We hypothesize that the application of these different ISFM components can result in significant increases in productivity and economic benefits of cassava-legume intercropping systems. Participatory demonstration trials were conducted in the highlands of Sud-Kivu, DR Congo with 12 farmer groups during 3 seasons. Treatments included the farmers' common practice (local common bean and cassava varieties, seed broadcast and manure addition) and sequentially added ISFM components: improved bean and cassava germplasm, modified crop arrangements, compound NPK fertilizer application and alternative legume species (groundnut or soybean). The use of improved germplasm did not result in yield increases without simultaneous implementation of other ISFM components. Modifying the crop arrangement by planting cassava at 2m between rows and 0.5m within the row, intercropped with four legume lines, increased bean yields during the first season and permits a second bean intercrop, which can increase total legume production by up to 1tha -1 and result in an additional revenue of almost 1000USDha -1. Crop arrangement or a second legume intercrop did not affect cassava storage root yields. Fertilizer application increased both legume and cassava yield, and net revenue by 400-700USDha -1 with a marginal rate of return of 1.6-2.7. Replacing the common bean intercrop by groundnut increased net revenue by 200-400USDha -1 partly because of the higher market value of the grains, but mostly due to a positive effect on cassava storage root yield. Soybean affected cassava yields negatively because of its high biomass production and long maturity period; modifications are needed to integrate a soybean intercrop into the system. The findings demonstrate the large potential of ISFM to increase productivity in cassava-legume systems in the Central-African highlands. Benefits were, however, not observed in all study sites. In poor soils, productivity increases were variable or absent, and soil amendments are required. A better understanding of the conditions under which positive effects occur can enable better targeting and local adaptation of the technologies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lohr B.,Research Center Palmira | Vasquez-Ordonez A.A.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Lopez-Lavalle L.A.B.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

During studies to adapt pheromone trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum to the special coconut growing conditions at the Colombian Pacific coast, 152 atypically-colored specimens were captured in a total collection of 53,802 of the normally completely black weevil. Five specimens had the typical coloration of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an invasive species recently introduced to Aruba and Curação. A regional expansion of this invasion to the South American continent was feared and all atypical specimens were submitted to taxonomic analysis. Both conventional and molecular methods were employed. Conventional taxonomics confirmed the samples as belonging to R. palmarum but registered undescribed and species-Atypical morphological variability in the subgular suture (wide vs. narrow), the ratio between intraocular distance and width of antennal scrobes (>0.35 vs. < 0.29) and the indentation of the mandibles (up to three mandibular teeth vs. bilobed). Molecular analysis placed all samples inspected, black and reddish alike, firmly within the R. palmarum group and the hypothesis of having inter-specific hybrids was rejected using co-dominant single sequence repeat markers with allelic specificity for both species. © 2015 Löhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Fonseca S.M.P.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Pachon H.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion | Year: 2012

Food security is sufficient access to safe and nutritious foods to satisfy nutritional needs and personal preferences, and to lead a healthy and active life. The current study evaluated food security in 302 families with school-age children living in a rural municipality in Cauca, Colombia, and factors associated with food security. Families were participating in an evaluation of the nutrition impact of an intervention with nutritionally improved maize. A12-item food security scale was applied to the household head, as well as a sociodemographic survey. Families were classified as food secure, or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Among households, 44,37% were classified as food secure and 55,63% as food insecure (with 41,39% as mildly insecure, 12,25% as moderately insecure and 1,99% as severely insecure). Food-insecure families had fewer persons working relative to the total individuals in the home, 4 or fewer services or assets, and children with a reduced appetite, in comparison with food-secure households. In conclusion, more than half of the sample was food insecure; the factors associated with food insecurity relate to family income.

Alvarez E.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Llano G.A.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Loke J.B.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Chacon M.I.,National University of Costa Rica
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Ceratocystis paradoxa (Anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa) is parasitic on a range of economic and food crops and is the cause of dry basal rot, a limiting disease in oil palm. The objective of this study was to determinate the pathogenic and genetic diversity of Thielaviopsis isolates from oil palms in Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil. A total of 164 strains of Thielaviopsis paradoxa were characterized using pathogenicity tests, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and PCR sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 5.8 S ribosomal DNA. Oil palm seedlings were inoculated by injecting the base of stems in the seedling stage with a fungal suspension and severity scores of disease reactions were evaluated. PCR amplification of the ITS region resulted in a 590 base pair (bp) product. Digestion of the PCR product with two restriction enzymes produced three restriction patterns, which according to ITS sequences could be classified as T. paradoxa. Six RAPD primers gave polymorphic bands in T. paradoxa. Population structure analyses of the RAPD data suggested that most of the isolates obtained in this study belonged to a single population. The genetic diversity of the isolates from South America was intermediate, and therefore, T. paradoxa is likely to be predominantly clonal compared with Ceratocystis species. Sporadic sexual reproduction may occur for T. paradoxa but is secondary to clonal reproduction. Data on pathogen diversity will provide information on breeding strategies and population structures. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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