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Mendez-Bravo A.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo | Mendez-Bravo A.,CINVESTAV | Calderon-Vazquez C.,CINVESTAV | Calderon-Vazquez C.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Alkamides are fatty acid amides of wide distribution in plants, structurally related to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) from Gram-negative bacteria and to N- acylethanolamines (NAEs) from plants and mammals. Global analysis of gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to N-isobutyl decanamide, the most highly active alkamide identified to date, revealed an overrepresentation of defense-responsive transcriptional networks. In particular, genes encoding enzymes for jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis increased their expression, which occurred in parallel with JA, nitric oxide (NO) and H 2O 2 accumulation. The activity of the alkamide to confer resistance against the necrotizing fungus Botrytis cinerea was tested by inoculating Arabidopsis detached leaves with conidiospores and evaluating disease symptoms and fungal proliferation. N-isobutyl decanamide application significantly reduced necrosis caused by the pathogen and inhibited fungal proliferation. Arabidopsis mutants jar1 and coi1 altered in JA signaling and a MAP kinase mutant (mpk6), unlike salicylic acid- (SA) related mutant eds16/sid2-1, were unable to defend from fungal attack even when N-isobutyl decanamide was supplied, indicating that alkamides could modulate some necrotrophic-associated defense responses through JA-dependent and MPK6-regulated signaling pathways. Our results suggest a role of alkamides in plant immunity induction. © 2011 Méndez-Bravo et al. Source

Valenzuela-Quinonez W.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Rodriguez-Quiroz G.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Ponce-Palafox J.T.,Autonomous University of Nayarit | Esparza-Leal H.M.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn
Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia | Year: 2011

The combined effect of different temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and salinities (15, 25, 35 and 45 psu) on the specific oxygen consumption (CEO) in Litopenaeus vannamei was determined. For this, CEO of 248 organisms of different body sizes (0.31 to 15.85 g) was measured. The CEO decreased when shrimp weight increased in all treatments without presenting a definite pattern when the salinity increased; even though all the combinations of temperature and salinity did not statistically show slopes significantly different in the regression models for CEO and organism weight relationships. The slope values suggest that at 20°C there is high energy expenditure at 15 psu, and at 25°C the highest energy consumption occurs at 45 psu. Whereas at 30°C, the lowest energy consumption occurred combined with the lowest salinity (15 psu). This may indicate that the isosmotic condition (point of lowest energy expenditure) tends to change with temperature, which may imply that the shrimp can be cultivated at high temperature (30°C) and at low salinities (15 psu) without increasing energy expenditure. Source

Esparza-Leal H.M.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Esparza-Leal H.M.,Sonora Institute of Technology | Alvarez-Ruiz P.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Escobedo-Bonilla C.M.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010

To test whether effluents released from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected farm ponds are a pathway for spreading WSSV, WSSV-negative Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were exposed to WSSV-containing water under conditions of fluctuating water temperatures. White spot disease outbreaks occurred at the shrimp ponds before and during the experiment. Two cages were placed inside each test pond, and one was placed at the outlet canal. Each cage was stocked with 30 shrimp. Hemolymph from stocked shrimp was collected at intervals of 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, and 360 h after exposure and analyzed for presence of WSSV DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction. At diurnal variation of water temperature from 28.0 to 33.4 C, WSSV was detected as early as 120 h (ca. 11% of shrimp hemolymph pools) and 168 h (ca. 18% of shrimp hemolymph pools). WSSV was detected by 360 h (ca. 33% of shrimp hemolymph pools) in all cages, when water temperature varied from 24.9 to 28.5 C during a 48-h period. Cumulative mortality in cages inside ponds was ≤50.0 and 86.7% at the outlet canal. These data show that grow-out operations during the summer-autumn transition are at risk of WSSV outbreaks. The experiment demonstrated that WSSV can be spread by shrimp farm water drainage. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2010. Source

Esparza-Leal H.M.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Ponce-Palafox J.T.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos | Ponce-Palafox J.T.,Autonomous University of Nayarit | Arredondo-Figueroa J.L.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2010

We evaluated the performance of whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in response to different stocking densities and acclimation periods. Shrimp postlarvae were acclimated from seawater (30 g L-1) to low-salinity well water (<1.0 g L-1) at a constant hourly reduction rate of 40, 60, 80 and 100 h. After acclimation to low-salinity well water, postlarvae from each acclimation time treatment were stocked in three replicate tanks at densities of 50, 100, 150 or 200 shrimps m-2 for 12 weeks of growth. Salinity averaged <1.0 g L-1 for each growth study. The different treatments resulted in significant differences in both the final body weight and the survival rate (SR). Shrimp acclimated for 100 h showed substantially improved survival (83%) relative to shrimp acclimated for shorter periods. Shrimp yields for all cultured periods ranged from 0.32 kg m-2 in tanks stocked at 50 m-2 to 1.14 kg m-2 in tanks stocked at 200 m-2. We conclude that whiteleg shrimp can be successfully grown in low-salinity well water, and that the growth, production output and SRs are significantly higher when shrimp are acclimated for longer periods. © 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Campos-Enriquez J.O.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Belmonte-Jimenez S.I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Belmonte-Jimenez S.I.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional Ipn | Keppie J.D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 6 more authors.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault along the north-trending Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico, shows a series of NNW-SSE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with steeper gradients towards the east. The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone that constitutes the boundary between the Oaxaca and Juárez terranes. Cooperative interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. The Etla sub-basin is bounded by the moderately E-dipping, Etla Fault and the more steeply W-dipping Oaxaca Fault, which together constitute a graben that continues southwards into the Atzompa graben. The deeper Zaachila sub-basin, south of Oaxaca city, is a wide V-shaped graben with a horst in the middle. The new geophysical data suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20. km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. On the other hand, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of the horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. The sinistral movement may have taken place either during the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic, Laramide Orogeny as a lateral ramp in the thrust plane or under Miocene-Pliocene, NE-SW extension. The former suggests that the Donají Fault is a transcurrent fault, whereas the latter implies that it is a transfer fault. The models imply that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault and provide a constraint for the accretion of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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