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Luna-Suarez S.,Research Center en Biotecnologia Aplicada | Medina-Godoy S.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional | Cruz-Hernandez A.,CINVESTAV | Paredes-Lopez O.,CINVESTAV
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Amarantin is the predominant seed storage protein from amaranth. It shows a high content of essential amino acids, making this protein important from a nutritional viewpoint. The protein has two disulfide linked subunits: acidic and basic. Acidic subunit has the potential as a functional and nutraceutical protein, and it is structurally a good candidate for modification. In order to improve its functionality, the primary structure was modified in the third variable region of globulins 11S, by inserting four Val-Tyr antihypertensive peptides in tandem. The designed plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami (DE3) and then the expressed protein was purified. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to corroborate the identity of the protein by peptide mass fingerprinting; also, the modified peptide was fragmented and sequenced by mass spectrometry, corroborating thus the inserted residues. The hydrolyzed protein showed a high inhibitory activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (IC 50 0.064mgml -1); it was nearly eightfold more active than the nonmodified protein. In spite that the nonmodified subunit is less active, its activity is comparable with other hydrolyzed proteins reported as high active inhibitors. The expressed and purified subunit after its engineered modification, may be useful for preventing hypertension and for other medical purposes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Terrazas T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Escamilla-Molina R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Vazquez-Sanchez M.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2016

A comparative analysis was conducted of the tracheary elements of the stem and tubercle of six species of Coryphantha. The aims of the study were to identify the micromorphological characters and to determine whether the bottleneck model applied based on the similarity of the diameters of the tracheary elements in the stem and in the tubercle. We collected individuals of C. bumamma, C. clavata, C. erecta, C. glanduligera, C. ottonis, and C. radians, which were species with contrasting morphologies of the stems and tubercles. Sections and macerations were used to prepare the vascular cylinder and the cortical vascular bundles of the tubercle for observation. Our results showed that wide-band tracheids and vessel elements with annular or helical secondary walls predominated in wood. The cortical vascular bundles had primary or both primary and secondary growths, and the tracheary elements had diameters of 10–27 µm, with the pattern and size of the wide-band tracheids more heterogeneous than those of wood. These wider and shorter wide-band tracheids are interpreted as analogous to the dilated tracheids in the veinlets of eudicotyledons. The length and diameter of both tracheary elements (vessel elements and wide-band tracheids) in the tubercles were shorter and narrower than those of the tracheary elements in the vascular cylinder of the stem (P < 0.05). The diameters of the vessel elements in the tubercles were two- or threefold wider than those of the vessel elements in the cortical vascular bundles. Therefore, the results for the species of Coryphantha are consistent with the bottleneck model observed for the diameters of vessel elements for the non-succulent stems of other eudicots. © 2016, Botanical Society of Sao Paulo.

Valenzuela-Quinonez W.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional
Crustaceana | Year: 2012

The reproductive period of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) was analysed to determine its relationship to sea surface temperature (SST) in two zones of the Mexican Pacific coast. Mature females from fishing areas in the north (Mazatlán, 23°N 106°W) and south (Gulf of Tehuantepec, 15°N 95°W) and monthly SST values in a 1° geographic rectangular area were examined. Average SST for 1983-2005 increased from Mazatlán (26.2±0.2°C) to Tehuantepec (28.3±0.5°C). Seasonal variation in SST between the coldest and warmest months was 7.8°C in Mazatlán and 3.3°C in Tehuantepec. The reproductive period near Mazatlán is seven months, and it is year-round in Tehuantepec. This study suggests that warm water and low seasonal variability facilitate the reproduction of the white shrimp over a longer period. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 2012.

Santiago-Garcia P.A.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional | Lopez M.G.,CINVESTAV
Food and Function | Year: 2014

Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g-1, P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder. This journal is © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Maximiano Da Silva C.R.,Paulista University | Trevisan R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gonzalez-Elizondo M.S.,Centro Interdisciplinario Of Investigacion Para El Desarrollo Integral Regional | Ferreira J.M.,State University Londrina | Vanzela A.L.L.,State University Londrina
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

A karyotype analysis of 147 populations of 25 Brazilian species of Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) was carried out, including representatives of the three subgenera that occur in the country: Limnochloa, Scirpidium and Eleocharis. The analyses showed chromosomes without centromeres, but with terminal nucleolar constrictions (satellites) in some chromosomes. The chromosome numbers varied from 2n=6 in E. subarticulata and E. maculosa to 2n=60 in E. laeviglumis, but the chromosome basic number x=5 was confirmed. Species of the subgenera Eleocharis and Scirpidium possess fewer and larger chromosomes, while those in the subgenus Limnochloa have small and more numerous chromosomes. These features indicate that the karyotypes of the subgenera Eleocharis and Scirpidium are more closely related, in agreement with morphological and phylogenetical data. The representatives of the section Eleocharis exhibited the largest differences in chromosome number and size, probably due to chromosome fission and fusion. Polyploidy was the most common event in this group. Nevertheless, most of the studied species exhibited regular meiosis with only bivalent formation, even the polyploids, such as in E. geniculata and E. sellowiana. The cytogenetic information obtained showed quite variable karyotypes with chromosomes gradually decreasing in size, and predominance of polyploidy. These results are useful in the differentiation of the subgenera. © 2010 CSIRO.

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