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Apellaniz-Ruiz M.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Lee M.-Y.,Karolinska Institutet | Sanchez-Barroso L.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Gutierrez-Gutierrez G.,Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, can cause peripheral neuropathies leading to dose reductions and treatment suspensions and decreasing the quality of life of patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants altering paclitaxel pharmacokinetics increase neuropathy risk, but the major causes of interindividual differences in susceptibility to paclitaxel toxicity remain unexplained. We carried out a wholeexome sequencing (WES) study to identify genetic susceptibility variants associated with paclitaxel neuropathy. Experimental Design: Blood samples from 8 patients with severe paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy were selected for WES. An independent cohort of 228 cancer patients with complete paclitaxel neuropathy data was used for variant screening by DHPLC and association analysis. HEK293 cells were used for heterologous expression and characterization of two novel CYP3A4 enzymes. Results: WES revealed 2 patients with rare CYP3A4 variants, a premature stop codon (CYP3A4∗20 allele) and a novel missense variant (CYP3A4∗25, p.P389S) causing reduced enzyme expression. Screening for CYP3A4 variants in the independent cohort revealed three additional CYP3A4∗20 carriers, and two patients with missense variants exhibiting diminished enzyme activity (CYP3A4∗8 and the novel CYP3A4∗27 allele, p.L475V). Relative to CYP3A4 wild-type patients, those carrying CYP3A4 defective variants had more severe neuropathy (2- And 1.3-fold higher risk of neuropathy for loss-of-function and missense variants, respectively, P 1/4 0.045) and higher probability of neuropathy-induced paclitaxel treatment modifications (7- And 3-fold higher risk for loss-of-function and missense variants, respectively, P 1/4 5.9 10-5). Conclusion: This is the first description of a genetic marker associated with paclitaxel treatment modifications caused by neuropathy. CYP3A4 defective variants may provide a basis for paclitaxel treatment individualization. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.


Duran I.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC | Duran I.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Del Rocio | Garzon C.,Instituto Catalan Oncologia ICO IDIBELL | Sanchez A.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro | And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To estimate the cost per skeletal-related event (SRE) in patients with bone metastases secondary to solid tumours in the Spanish healthcare setting. Methods: Patients diagnosed with bone metastases secondary to breast, prostate or lung cancer were included in this multicentre, observational study. SREs are defined as pathologic fracture (vertebral and non-vertebral fracture), radiation to bone, spinal cord compression or surgery to bone. Health resource utilisation associated with these events (inpatient stays, outpatient, emergency room and home health visits, nursing home stays and procedures) were collected retrospectively for all SREs that occurred in the 97 days prior to enrolment and prospectively during follow-up. Unit costs were obtained from the 2010 eSalud healthcare costs database. Results: A total of 93 Spanish patients with solid tumours were included (31 had breast cancer, 21 prostate cancer and 41 lung cancer), contributing a total of 143 SREs to this cost analysis. Inpatient stays (between 9.0 and 29.9 days of mean length of stay per inpatient stay by SRE type) and outpatient visits (between 1.7 and 6.4 mean visits per SRE type) were the most frequently reported types of health resources utilised. The mean cost per SRE was between €2,377.79 (radiation to bone) and €7,902.62 (spinal cord compression). Conclusion: SREs are associated with a significant consumption of healthcare resources that generate a substantial economic burden for the Spanish healthcare system. © 2013 The Author(s).


Gillessen S.,Kantonsspital St Gallen | Omlin A.,Kantonsspital St Gallen | Attard G.,The Institute of Cancer Research | de Bono J.S.,The Institute of Cancer Research | And 47 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion, and not based on a critical review of the available evidence, are presented. The various recommendations carried differing degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of the article text and in the detailed voting results recorded in supplementary Material, available at Annals of Oncology online. Detailed decisions on treatment as always will involve consideration of disease extent and location, prior treatments, host factors, patient preferences as well as logistical and economic constraints. Inclusion of men with APC in clinical trials should be encouraged. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Hechmati G.,Amgen | Cure S.,OptumInsight | Gouepo A.,OptumInsight | Hoefeler H.,Forschungszentrum Ruhr Witten | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Medical Economics | Year: 2013

Objectives: Patients with bone metastases often experience skeletal-related events (SREs: radiation or surgery to bone, pathologic fracture, and spinal cord compression). This study examined health resource utilization and costs associated with SREs. Methods: Data presented are from the European cohort (Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) of patients with solid tumours enrolled in a multi-national, prospective, observational study in patients with solid tumours or multiple myeloma. Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score 0-2 and life expectancy 6 months, who experienced an SRE up to 97 days before enrolment, were eligible. Health resource utilization associated with SREs (including number/length of inpatient stays, numbers of procedures and outpatient visits) were collected through chart review for up to 97 days before enrolment and prospectively during follow-up. Country-specific cost calculations were performed. Results: In total, 478 eligible patients contributed 893 SREs to this analysis. Radiation to bone occurred most frequently (66% of total). Spinal cord compression (7%) and surgery to bone (10%) were the least common events, but most likely to require inpatient stays. The most costly SREs were also spinal cord compression (mean per SRE across countries, €4884-€12,082) and surgery to bone (€3348-€9407). Inpatient stays were the main cost drivers. Limitations: Health resource utilization used to calculate the costs associated with SREs may have been under-estimated as a result of exclusion of patients with low performance status or life expectancy; unavailable information and exclusion of resource consumption associated with pain. Thus, the estimate of associated costs is likely to be conservative. Conclusions: SREs result in considerable health resource utilization, imposing a substantial financial burden driven by inpatient stays. Treatments that prevent/delay SREs may help ease this burden, thereby providing cost savings across European healthcare systems. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Rodriguez-Pascual J.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC | Sha P.,Johns Hopkins University | Garcia-Garcia E.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC | Rajeshkumar N.V.,Johns Hopkins University | And 7 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2013

Summary: A high throughput screening for anticancer activity of FDA approved drugs identified mycophenolic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of inositol monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as an active agent with an antiangiogenesis mode of action. Exposure of pancreatic cancer cell lines to MPA resulted in growth inhibition and reduced the expression of VEGF that was reversed by supplementing the media with guanosine supporting and IMPDH-dependant mechanism. In preclinical in vivo study, MPA showed a moderate inhibition of tumor growth in a panel of 6 human derived pancreatic cancer xenografts but reduced the expression of VEGF. To investigate the effects of MPA in human pancreatic cancer, a total of 12 patients with resectable pancreatic cancer (PDA) received increasing doses of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in cohorts of 6 patients each from 5-15 days prior to surgical resection. Treatment was well tolerated with one episode of grade 1 muscle pain, one episode of grade 2 lymphopenia (2 gr/day dose) and one episode of grade 2 elevantion in LFT (all in the 2 gr./day dose). Patients recovered from surgery uneventfully with no increased post-operative complications. Assessment of CD31, VEGF, and TUNEL in resected specimens compared to a non treated control of 6 patients showed no significant variations in any of the study endpoints. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of translating a preclinical observation to the clinical setting and to explore a drug mechanism of action in patients. MPA, however, did not show any hints of antiangiogenesis of anticancer clinical activity questioning if this agent should be further developed in PDA. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Seiwert T.Y.,University of Chicago | Fayette J.,University of Lyon | Cupissol D.,Institute Du Cancer Of Montpellier Val Daurelle | del Campo J.M.,Hospital Universitario Vall dHebron | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker that has shown activity in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer. We hypothesized that the agent would have greater antitumor activity compared with cetuximab in recurrent or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, whose disease has progressed after platinum-containing therapy. Patients and methods: An open-label, randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 43 centers; 124 patients were randomized (1: 1) to either afatinib (50 mg/day) or cetuximab (250 mg/m2/week) until disease progression or intolerable adverse events (AEs) (stage I), with optional crossover (stage II). The primary end point was tumor shrinkage before crossover assessed by investigator (IR) and independent central review (ICR). Results: A total of 121 patients were treated (61 afatinib, 60 cetuximab) and 68 crossed over to stage II (32 and 36 respectively). In stage I, mean tumor shrinkage by IR/ICR was 10.4%/16.6% with afatinib and 5.4%/10.1% with cetuximab (P = 0.46/0.30). Objective response rate was 16.1%/8.1% with afatinib and 6.5%/9.7% with cetuximab (IR/ICR). Comparable disease control rates were observed with afatinib (50%) and cetuximab (56.5%) by IR; similar results were seen by ICR. Most common grade ≥3 drug-related AEs (DRAEs) were rash/acne (18% versus 8.3%), diarrhea (14.8% versus 0%), and stomatitis/mucositis (11.5% versus 0%) with afatinib and cetuximab, respectively. Patients with DRAEs leading to treatment discontinuation were 23% with afatinib and 5% with cetuximab. In stage II, disease control rate (IR/ICR) was 38.9%/33.3% with afatinib and 18.8%/18.8% with cetuximab. Conclusion: Afatinib showed antitumor activity comparable to cetuximab in R/M HNSCC in this exploratory phase II trial, although more patients on afatinib discontinued treatment due to AEs. Sequential EGFR/ErbB treatment with afatinib and cetuximab provided sustained clinical benefit in patients after crossover, suggesting a lack of cross-resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Lyon, Institute Du Cancer Of Montpellier Val Daurelle, Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC, Center Oscar Lambret and 6 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2014

Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker that has shown activity in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer. We hypothesized that the agent would have greater antitumor activity compared with cetuximab in recurrent or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, whose disease has progressed after platinum-containing therapy.An open-label, randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 43 centers; 124 patients were randomized (1 : 1) to either afatinib (50 mg/day) or cetuximab (250 mg/m(2)/week) until disease progression or intolerable adverse events (AEs) (stage I), with optional crossover (stage II). The primary end point was tumor shrinkage before crossover assessed by investigator (IR) and independent central review (ICR).A total of 121 patients were treated (61 afatinib, 60 cetuximab) and 68 crossed over to stage II (32 and 36 respectively). In stage I, mean tumor shrinkage by IR/ICR was 10.4%/16.6% with afatinib and 5.4%/10.1% with cetuximab (P = 0.46/0.30). Objective response rate was 16.1%/8.1% with afatinib and 6.5%/9.7% with cetuximab (IR/ICR). Comparable disease control rates were observed with afatinib (50%) and cetuximab (56.5%) by IR; similar results were seen by ICR. Most common grade 3 drug-related AEs (DRAEs) were rash/acne (18% versus 8.3%), diarrhea (14.8% versus 0%), and stomatitis/mucositis (11.5% versus 0%) with afatinib and cetuximab, respectively. Patients with DRAEs leading to treatment discontinuation were 23% with afatinib and 5% with cetuximab. In stage II, disease control rate (IR/ICR) was 38.9%/33.3% with afatinib and 18.8%/18.8% with cetuximab.Afatinib showed antitumor activity comparable to cetuximab in R/M HNSCC in this exploratory phase II trial, although more patients on afatinib discontinued treatment due to AEs. Sequential EGFR/ErbB treatment with afatinib and cetuximab provided sustained clinical benefit in patients after crossover, suggesting a lack of cross-resistance.


Sanmamed M.F.,University of Navarra | Rodriguez I.,University of Navarra | Schalper K.A.,Yale University | Onate C.,University of Navarra | And 14 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

A current pressing need in cancer immunology is the development of preclinical model systems that are immunocompetent for the study of human tumors. Here, we report the development of a humanized murine model that can be used to analyze the pharmacodynamics and antitumor properties of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in settings where the receptors targeted by the mAbs are expressed. Human lymphocytes transferred into immunodeficient mice underwent activation and redistribution to murine organs, where they exhibited cellsurface expression of hCD137 and hPD-1. Systemic lymphocyte infiltrations resulted in a lethal CD4+ T cell-mediated disease (xenograft-versus-host disease), which was aggravated when murine subjects were administered clinical-grade anti-hCD137 (urelumab) and anti-hPD-1 (nivolumab). In mice engrafted with human colorectal HT-29 carcinoma cells and allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), or with a patientderived gastric carcinoma and PBMCs from the same patient, we found that coadministration of urelumab and nivolumab was sufficient to significantly slow tumor growth. Correlated with this result were increased numbers of activated human T lymphocytes producing IFNγ and decreased numbers of human regulatory T lymphocytes in the tumor xenografts, possibly explaining the efficacy of the therapeutic regimen. Our results offer a proof of concept for the use of humanized mouse models for surrogate efficacy and histology investigations of immune checkpoint drugs and their combinations. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


PubMed | Bristol Myers Squibb, Yale University, University of Navarra, Austral University and Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2015

A current pressing need in cancer immunology is the development of preclinical model systems that are immunocompetent for the study of human tumors. Here, we report the development of a humanized murine model that can be used to analyze the pharmacodynamics and antitumor properties of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in settings where the receptors targeted by the mAbs are expressed. Human lymphocytes transferred into immunodeficient mice underwent activation and redistribution to murine organs, where they exhibited cell-surface expression of hCD137 and hPD-1. Systemic lymphocyte infiltrations resulted in a lethal CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease (xenograft-versus-host disease), which was aggravated when murine subjects were administered clinical-grade anti-hCD137 (urelumab) and anti-hPD-1 (nivolumab). In mice engrafted with human colorectal HT-29 carcinoma cells and allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), or with a patient-derived gastric carcinoma and PBMCs from the same patient, we found that coadministration of urelumab and nivolumab was sufficient to significantly slow tumor growth. Correlated with this result were increased numbers of activated human T lymphocytes producing IFN and decreased numbers of human regulatory T lymphocytes in the tumor xenografts, possibly explaining the efficacy of the therapeutic regimen. Our results offer a proof of concept for the use of humanized mouse models for surrogate efficacy and histology investigations of immune checkpoint drugs and their combinations.


PubMed | Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal CIOCC and Laboratorio Of Dianas Terapeuticas
Type: | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Cancer genomics and translational medicine rely on the molecular profiling of patients tumor obtained during surgery or biopsy. Alternatively, blood is a less invasive source of tumor DNA shed, amongst other ways, as cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Highly-sensitive assays capable to detect cancer genetic events from patients blood plasma became popularly known as liquid biopsy (LqB). Importantly, retrospective studies including small number of selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy have shown LqB capable to detect the acquired clonal mutations in RAS genes leading to therapy resistance. However, the usefulness of LqB in the real-life clinical monitoring of these patients still lack additional validation on controlled studies. In this context, we designed a prospective LqB clinical trial to monitor newly diagnosed KRAS wild-type (wt) mCRC patients who received a standard FOLFIRI-cetuximab regimen. We used BEAMing technique for evaluate cfDNA mutations in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in twenty-five patients during a 2-y period. A total of 2,178 cfDNA mutation analyses were performed and we observed that: a) continued wt circulating status was correlated with a prolonged response; b) smoldering increases in mutant cfDNA were correlated with acquired resistance; while c) mutation upsurge/explosion anticipated a remarkable clinical deterioration. The current study provides evidences, obtained for the first time in an unbiased and prospective manner, that reinforces the utility of LqB for monitoring mCRC patients.

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