Centro IFAPA la Mojonera

Almería, Spain

Centro IFAPA la Mojonera

Almería, Spain
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Garcia-Delgado C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Eymar E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Contreras J.,Centro IFAPA la Mojonera | Segura M.L.,Centro IFAPA la Mojonera | Suarez-Estrella F.,University of Almeria
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Owing to the shortage of good quality irrigation water all over the world for use in agriculture, disinfected wastewater could be a well-priced stable source. Because of poor control of wastewater quality, pollutant accumulation and relevant ecotoxicological effects may occur, especially for inorganic pollutants (heavy metals), organic pollutants (pesticides and other persistent compounds) and human pathogenic organisms. In our study, urban wastewater from the town of Almería (Spain), after primary and secondary treatments in the wastewater treatment plant, was pumped to a tertiary treatment plant. Wastewater samples were taken before tertiary treatment, after chlorination and after chlorination plus ozonization. This paper reports on the effect of the disinfection systems on the content of inorganic pollutants (Al,Cr,Co,Ni,As,Se, Cd,Sb,Hg, Pb), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total and faecal coliforms, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. The results indicate that there is no environmental threat due to the use of disinfected wastewater from both the inorganic and organic pollutants analyzed. In general, tertiary treatments improved the elimination/reduction of microbial contamination indicators, although both season and weather affected the efficiency of treatment. The parametric values for the inorganic and organic pollutants studied in drinking water are greater than those found in the disinfected waters studied. Disinfected wastewater allows us to save on fertilizers, mainly those with nutrients Ca, Mg and B. The use of disinfected wastewater in intensive horticulture by fertigation in the agricultural region of Almería (southeast Spain) is considered.


Seguraa M.L.,Centro IFAPA la Mojonera | Contreras J.,Centro IFAPA la Mojonera | Garcia-Delgado C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Eymarb E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Almeria (Spain) is one of the most important agricultural areas in Southern Europe, and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main crops produced under intensive conditions using fertigation. The lack of good quality irrigation water in this semi-arid area is an ever increasing problem. Experiments to evaluate the usefulness and the potential risks of using disinfected urban wastewater to fertigate pepper in a greenhouse were conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential soil and leachate pollution, and to compare the yield and fruit quality of pepper. Fertigation solutions were designed with good quality ground water and disinfected waste water. The pollutants Al, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, Co and micronutrients (Mn, Cu, Zn) were analyzed in soils after digestion in microwaves with HNO3-HCl by ICP-MS. In the leachates collected in lysimeters Al, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, Co, Na, nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, P, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo) by ICP-MS and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using GC-MS, were analyzed. Results show that levels of pollutants and micronutrients do not differ between soil fertigated with disinfected wastewater and ground water. Leachates show no differences between disinfected wastewater and ground water with respect to inorganic pollution, and the levels of PAHs are lower than levels considered dangerous. Production, biomass and quality indices show the absence of significant differences between plants and fruits produced with good quality water and those obtained by fertigation with disinfected wastewater.


Segura M.L.,Centro IFAPA La Mojonera | Contreras J.I.,Centro IFAPA La Mojonera | Garcia-Delgado C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Eymar E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The use of high amounts of fertilizers in greenhouse production leads to important environmental problems due to the leaching of elements. The knowledge on plant nutritional requirements is required to attain and develop a technical efficiency. This work studies the influence of different levels of NK supply, applied by fertigation, on uptake and nutrient distribution in pepper. The experiment was conducted in a polyethylene greenhouse 'Aifos' pepper crop, on a sand-mulched sandy loam soil with trickle irrigation. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four blocks. Five NK fertilization levels (N 0K0, N1K1, N1K 1.5, N1.5K1 and N1.5K 1.5), were established, being the treatment N1K1 the recommended rate corresponding to 12.5 g m-2 of N and 19.3 g m-2 of K and average nutrient concentrations: 9.8 mM of N(NO3 -+ NH4 +) and 5.4 mM of K. Dry matter and content of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) were determined for different plant parts (pruning rests, fruit, leaf, and stem) for the whole season. The results show that the highest NK levels increase the N, P, K, and Mg uptake by the plant. The N1.5K1.5 treatment presents the highest uptake of N, related to a bigger production of dry matter. All treatments shows a high productive efficiency (PE) of NPK, with the fruit as a principal nutrient sink in all the cases. Treatment N1.5K1.5 presented the highest PE of N. The main mineral constituent of the pepper plant was K, surpassing the N content, and the minor constituent was P. Plant nutrient distribution showed the same behavior for N, P, and K, the fruit being the nutrient sink. On the other hand, the same tendency was observed for Ca and Mg, stored mainly in the leaf.


Valdes A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Delgado C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Eymar E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Segura M.L.,Centro IFAPA La Mojonera
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Due to the water shortages in Mediterranean countries, recycled water is being applied for agricultural uses. Potential risks of wastewater use include the presence of several pollutants dangerous for food security such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic molecules containing condensed aromatic rings. Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum 'Aifos') were irrigated with treated wastewater from Almeria city (southeast Spain), and groundwater was used as control. Security risks related to PAHs in treated wastewater were not found according to legislation. Concentrations of PAHs in soils irrigated with wastewater (10.39 μg kg-1) and groundwater (11.01 μg kg-1) were significantly less than original soil (28.10 μg kg-1). These differences could be caused by the decrease of PAHs with 3 or 4 rings, which can suffer higher degradation or possible plant uptake. Final concentration in fruits treated with treated wastewater (16.70 μg kg-1) did not show significant differences with those which were treated with groundwater (14.29 μg kg-1). In both cases, the PAHs quantified in higher rates were phenantrene (Phe) and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA); although their threshold levels are not still defined in horticultural crops, Phe and BaA concentrations were much lower than those obtained in other products like smoked food. © ISHS.

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