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Churriana de la Vega, Spain

Carmona-Martin E.,Institute Horticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea La Mayora | Regalado J.J.,Institute Horticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea La Mayora | Padilla I.M.G.,Institute Horticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea La Mayora | Padilla I.M.G.,Centro IFAPA Churriana | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2014

Cultivated asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is an economically important plant worldwide. “Morado de Huetor” is a Spanish autochthonous landrace characterized by their longevity, organoleptic characteristics, differential biocompound content and high heterozygosity, resulting in heterogeneous plantations with limited productivity. Consequently, this landrace suffers high risk of extinction due the lack of productivity. The preservation of the genetic pool of asparagus requires the development of a reliable micropropagation method. A new, rapid and efficient method of micropropagation for asparagus using rhizome bud explants has been developed. The rate of disinfection reached 90 %, and the system for shoot development and rooting on Asparagus Rhizome Bud Medium took place in one step. Recovery of the full plantlets ranged between 65 and 90 %. The plantlets were ready to be transplanted by 8 weeks, with a successful acclimatization of 80 % in average. The micropropagated plants were normal in phenotype, and the genetic stability was verified using molecular markers expressed sequence tags–microsatellites or simple sequence repeats and Flow Cytometry and certified as true-to-type. Applying this method, an in vitro breeder collection of “Morado de Huetor” landrace, A. officinalis, wild asparagus relatives and hybrid progenies has been established. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Chamorro M.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Dominguez P.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Medina J.J.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Miranda L.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | And 6 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The phase-out of methyl bromide (MB) in strawberry has increased the difficulty of controlling Macrophomina phaseolina, a soil-borne pathogen and causal agent of charcoal rot disease. In this study, several chemicals and one biosolarization treatment were compared for the control M. phaseolina in three successive seasons between 2009 and 2011. Trials were conducted in two fields with different history of chemical soil treatments in the south-western coast of Spain (Huelva). At Fres-Gómez S.L. farm (Palos de la Frontera), the soil was fumigated with 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin from 2005 to 2008, whereas the soil of Occifresa S.C.A. farm (Moguer), was fumigated with MB until 2001. We determined treatment effects on plant mortality, M. phaseolina population in soil over time, and fruit yield. Five treatments were applied during the 2009-10 season: biosolarization with chicken manure, dazomet + 1,3-dichloropropene, 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin, chloropicrin, and dimethyl disulfide + chloropicrin by shank. During the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons, two additional treatments were added: dimethyl disulfide + chloropicrin through drip irrigation and dazomet. An untreated control was also included in all tests. Strawberry cv. 'Camarosa' was grown following Spanish standard production practices in high plastic tunnels. Over each season, most treatments reduced M. phaseolina populations in soil 20-100%. However, populations were not significantly reduced by the dimethyl disulfide + chloropicrin applied through drip irrigation. In both farms, treatments reduced plant mortality caused by charcoal rot 35-100% and increased yields 5-56% relative to the untreated control during all three seasons. Economic analyses showed that the cost of treatments was easily offset by increases in yield. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Chamorro M.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Miranda L.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Dominguez P.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | Medina J.J.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPDR JA | And 4 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, is a primarily soil-borne pathogen. Charcoal rot has become increasingly troublesome in strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) in Spain, where it was reported for the first time in 2006, and worldwide. After the phase out of methyl bromide, some authors have associated the changes in the fumigation products used and methods of applying them prior to planting strawberries with the establishment of M.phaseolina. Moreover, in developed countries, the majority of useful chemical alternatives are futureless, because of regulatory restrictions. Among the non-chemical alternatives for strawberry fruit production is soil biosolarization, a new technique that combines soil biofumigation and soil solarization. In this study, we compared the efficacy of several biosolarization treatments to control M.phaseolina for three successive seasons in a non-chemical treated field near Moguer, Huelva (southwestern Spain). The influence of these treatments on M.phaseolina soil population, charcoal rot development, and strawberry yield was assessed each year. Soil was biofumigated by amendment of fresh chicken manure at 12,500kg/ha with or without Trichoderma spp (TUSAL®) at 3.5kg/ha; fresh chicken manure at 25,000kg/ha; Brassica spp. pellets (BIOFENCE®) at 2000kg/ha and 15,000kg/ha; dried olive pomace at 12,500kg/ha or sugar beet vinasse at 15,000kg/ha. Soil was then solarized for 30 days by covering with a clear plastic mulch. A control that received fermented manure remained uncovered. The treatments reduced or stabilized M.phaseolina sclerotia populations in soil compared to the untreated control. Treatments which combined biosolarization with chicken manure at 25,000kg/ha or sugar beet vinasse at 15,000kg/ha significantly reduced the incidence of charcoal rot compared to the untreated control. Furthermore, yields obtained by amendment with fresh chicken manure (59,319-89,421kg/ha) were also similar to the yields previously reported for the standard chemical fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin. Therefore, biosolarization with fresh chicken manure could be a promising and sustainable option for strawberry crops grown in warm temperate climate areas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chamorro M.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPMA JA | Dominguez P.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPMA JA | Medina J.J.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPMA JA | Miranda L.,Centro IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil CAPMA JA | And 5 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is a high value crop grown in Mediterranean countries that benefits from chemical soil fumigation (up to 2006 with methyl bromide, and currently using other chemicals treatments such as dichloropropene plus chloropicrin). After the phased-out of methyl bromide, our group carried out a research in new techniques and non-chemical alternatives. In the last season (2012/2013), field trials were performed in two fields with different background soil chemical treatments: namely Fres-Gómez S.L. (Palos de la Frontera, Huelva) was soil fumigated with 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin until 2008, and Occifresa S.C.A. (Moguer, Huelva) that was soil fumigated with methyl bromide until 2001. In addition, a number of chemical and biosolarization treatments were assessed to determine their influence on agronomic traits of strawberry including plant vigour, plant mortality and early and total yield production. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with eight soil treatments plus an untreated control. Each treatment was replicated three times. The treatments were: dazomet (20 g/m2) + dimethyl disulfide (30 g/m2), biosolarization with chicken manure (2.5 kg/m2), dazomet (20 g/m2) + 1,3- dichloropropene (30 g/m2), 1,3-dichloropropene: chloropicrin (40 g/m2), chloropicrin (40 g/m2), dimethyl disulfide (30 g/m2) + chloropicrin (10 g/m2), dazomet (50 g/m2) and dazomet (30 g/m2). Strawberry cultivar 'Florida Fortuna' was cultivated following conventional cultivation practices, using large plastic tunnels. In treated soils, yield was significantly higher and plant mortality was significantly lower compared with the untreated control, in both sites.

Encina C.L.,IHSM La Mayora CSIC UMA | Martin E.C.,IHSM La Mayora CSIC UMA | Lopez A.A.,IHSM La Mayora CSIC UMA | Padilla I.M.G.,Centro IFAPA Churriana
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2014

Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the traditional methods of vegetative propagation were inefficient and inadequate, due to the low morphogenetic potential of this species, and the low rooting rate. The in vitro tissue culture methods of micropropagation can be applied successfully to cherimoya and other Annona sp to overcome these problems. Most of the protocols of micropropagation and regeneration were developed using the cultivar Fino de Jete, which is the major cultivar in Spain. First it is developed the method to micropropagate the juvenile material of cherimoya (ENCINA et al., 1994), and later it was optimized a protocol to micropropagate adult cherimoya genotypes selected by outstanding agronomical traits (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2004) and further it was improved the process through micrografting (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2011).At the present time we are involved in inducing and obtaining new elite genotypes, as part of a breeding program for the cherimoya and other Annonas, using and optimizing different methodologies in vitro: a) Adventitious organogenesis and regeneration from cellular cultures (ENCINA, 2004), b) Ploidy manipulation of the cherimoya, to obtain haploid, tetraploid and triploid plants (seedless), c) Genetic transformation, for the genes introduction to control the postharvest processes and the genes introduction to provide resistance to pathogen and insects and d) Micropropagation and regeneration of other wild Annona or related Annonaceae species such as: Annona senegalensis, A. scleroderma, A. montana, A. reticulata, A. glabra, A. diversifolia and Rollinia sp.

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