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Cadiz, Spain

Merlo M.A.,University of Cadiz | Cross I.,University of Cadiz | Chairi H.,University of Cadiz | Manchado M.,Centro IFAPA | Rebordinos L.,University of Cadiz
Genes and Genetic Systems | Year: 2010

By analyzing three multigene families, two closely related and commercially important species, Dicentrarchus labrax and Dicentrarchus punctatus, were characterized by cytogenetic and molecular methods. The interspecies hybrid Dicentrarchus labrax (♀) × Dicentrarchus punctatus (♂) was also analyzed. The multigene families studied were the 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and the U2 snRNA. A microsatellite GTT motif was found within the non transcribed spacers (NTS) of the 5S rDNA from the two species. However, hexanucleotide duplication next to this microsatellite was observed in the D. labrax and hybrid clones, but not in D. punctatus. The U2 snRNA appeared to be linked to the U5 gene and showed two variant sequences, in both D. labrax and D. punctatus. They differed in one insertion/deletion of 7 nucleotides. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region showed higher nucleotide variability in D. punctatus than in D. labrax. Nucleotide polymorphism within species and also nucleotide divergence between species were determined in the different gene regions. In a FISH analysis we obtained three chromosomal markers, because the 5S rDNA, 18S rDNA and U2 snRNA probes hybridized each in three different chromosome pairs. Hence none of them was co-localized. The 5S rDNA cluster and U2 snRNA were localized in acrocentric chromosome pairs, while the 18S rRNA gene probe hybridized in a subtelocentric pair. Finally, the usefulness of the results in developing tools for phylogenetic analysis and species identification are discussed in relation to other fish species.

Pawlus A.D.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Pawlus A.D.,University of Minnesota | Cantos-Villar E.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Cantos-Villar E.,Centro IFAPA | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

Wine is a major dietary source of numerous potentially health promoting stilbenoids that have been the subject of many qualitative and quantitative studies. However, our initial HPLC-MS analyses of crude wine samples demonstrated the presence of compounds with molecular weights matching characteristic stilbenoid dimers, trimers, and tetramers that were unaccounted for in the literature. Due to the likelihood that these are known compounds, a chemical dereplication method is highly desirable. We developed such a method using LC-DAD-MS monitored fractionation steps, using adsorption and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), to obtain fractions rich in stilbenoids for analysis in stopped-flow LC-NMR. 1H NMR spectra and MS data were cross-referenced with our laboratory database and the literature for identification. This method yielded highly useful structural information, allowing the characterization of previously unidentified stilbenoids in wine, ampelopsin C, isohopeaphenol, quadrangularin A, and E-ω-viniferin. These results demonstrate the usefulness of stop-flow LC-NMR in conjunction with LC-MS guided fractionation for the dereplication of compounds of interest in general, and specifically for expanding the current knowledge of wine chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia-Garrido S.,Centro IFAPA | Hachero-Cruzado I.,Centro IFAPA | Garrido D.,Centro IFAPA | Rosas C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Domingues P.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography
Aquaculture International | Year: 2010

Lipid composition of the mantle and digestive gland of Octopus vulgaris that were not fed for 27 days were determined. Every 3 days, three octopuses were killed and samples of the mantle and the digestive gland (DG) were taken, in order to determine total lipids as well as lipid classes and fatty acids. Composition in total lipids (TL) for the mantle was similar until day 21, then decreased and remained similar until the end of the experiment. Composition in total lipids for the DG decreased significantly after 3 days, then remained similar until day 21, and then decreased until the end of the experiment. As for the lipid classes, in the DG the main components were triglycerides and sterol esters. Sterol esters suffered strong reductions after 10 days of starvation, while triglycerides remained similar until day 21 and then decreased until the end of the experiment. Cholesterol decreased gradually throughout the experimental period. For polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased during the first 3 days and then decreased throughout the experiment. In the mantle, the only neutral classes that decrease were triacylglycerols and sterol esters, while no polar lipid classes decreased in this organ. It was noticeable the decrease in almost all fatty acids in the DG after 3 days of starvation, while in the mantle there were no differences in fatty acid concentrations during the experiment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

The effects, in greenhouse conditions, of Purified Urban Wastewater (PW) from Almería (Spain), in the fertigation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on sandy mulch soil, were evaluated. Primary, secondary (active sludges) and tertiary (Chlorination + ozonation) purification treatments were applied to wastewater. Irrigation treatments applied were PW, natural Ground Water (GW), Fertilizer PW (FPW) and Fertilizer GW (FGW). The vegetal biomass, yield and fruit quality were controlled. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu and Zn), arsenic (As) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in water, soil, leaf, and fruit were analysed. The PW presented heavy metal, As and PAH contents acceptable for its use in drip irrigation. In the soil, fertigated with PW, the concentration of heavy metals and As did not increase, whilst the PAH concentration decreased. The PW treatment supplied enough nutrients to obtain yield and fruit quality equal to that of GW with fertilization. A significant saving on N, P and K fertilizers (37%, 66% and 12% respectively) was achieved by using PW. The Cd, Pb and As contents of the fruit did not show risk for human consumption. The total PAH concentrations in the fruit were low, the highest of which was phenathrene, with no carcinogenic signification.

Merlo M.A.,University of Cadiz | Cross I.,University of Cadiz | Manchado M.,Centro IFAPA | Cardenas S.,Centro IFAPA | Rebordinos L.,University of Cadiz
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Year: 2013

There has been considerable discussion in recent years on the evolution of the tandemly repeated multigene families, since some organisms show a concerted model whereas others show a birth-and-death model. This controversial subject extends to several species of fish. In this study, three species of the Sparidae family (Pagrus pagrus, P. auriga and Diplodus sargus) and an interspecific hybrid (P. pagrus (♀) × P. auriga (â™)) have been studied at both molecular and cytogenetic level, taking three different multigene families (5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and U2 snDNA). Results obtained with the 5S rDNA in P. pagrus and P. auriga are characterized by a considerable degree of conservation at the two levels; however, an extraordinary variation was observed in D. sargus at the two levels, which has never been found in other fishes studied to date. As a consequence of this, the evolutionary model of the multigene families is discussed considering the results obtained and others from the bibliography. The result obtained in the hybrid allowed the recombination frequency in each multigene family to be estimated. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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