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Camacho R.J.,New University of Lisbon | Camacho R.J.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Ocidental
Intervirology | Year: 2012

HIV-2 is responsible for a limited epidemic in West Africa. Around 20% of all infected patients will progress to AIDS, and will need antiretroviral therapy. Unfortunately, antiretrovirals were developed to suppress HIV-1 replication; not all of them are active against HIV-2, e.g. all nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or fusion inhibitors. Moreover, only three protease inhibitors have the same activity in HIV-1 and HIV-2: lopinavir, saquinavir and darunavir. Even if all nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors appear to be equally efficient against HIV-2, different resistance pathways and an increased facility of resistance selection make their use much more difficult than in HIV-1. Integrase inhibitors have a potent inhibitory effect on HIV-2 replication, but questions about the best timing for their use remain unanswered, as well as those regarding the use of entry inhibitors in this setting. The lack of reliable monitoring tools adds to the difficulty of treating HIV-2-infected patients, mostly because the viral load is not as useful as it is in HIV-1, and the incomplete knowledge about resistance pathways limits the clinical usefulness of resistance testing. With all these limitations, HIV-2 treatment remains a challenge. Further research is urgently needed, since antiretroviral therapy is now becoming available in countries where the HIV-2 prevalence is significant. The need for appropriate guidelines for HIV-2 treatment has become an emergency. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Barahona-Correa B.,New University of Lisbon | Barahona-Correa B.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Ocidental | Bugalho P.,Hospital Egas Moniz | Guimaraes J.,British Hospital | Xavier M.,New University of Lisbon
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

Primary focal dystonia is an idiopathic neurological disorder causing involuntary muscle contraction. Its pathophysiology probably involves the basal ganglia and cortical-basal pathways. Primary dystonia appears to be associated with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but evidence remains scarce and contradictory. We addressed the following research questions: (1) Do primary dystonia patients have high obsessive-compulsive symptom scores? (2) Are these symptoms more severe in dystonia than in controls with equivalent peripheral neurological disorders? and (3) Is psychopathology different in botulinum toxin-treated and -untreated dystonia patients? This work was a cross-sectional, descriptive, controlled study comprising 45 consecutive patients with primary focal dystonia (i.e., blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, or writer's cramp) 46 consecutive patients with hemifacial spasm, cervical spondylarthropathy, or carpal tunnel syndrome, and 30 healthy volunteers. Assessment included the DSM-IV based psychiatric interview, Symptom Checklist 90R, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Checklist, and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale. Dystonia patients had higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom scores than both control groups. Dystonia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptom scores above cut-off for clinical significance predominantly developed hygiene-related symptoms. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in primary focal dystonia. Obsessive-compulsive disorder frequency was 6.7%. Primary focal dystonia patients have higher obsessive-compulsive symptom scores than individuals with similar functional disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders, suggesting that obsessive-compulsive symptoms in dystonia are not reactive to chronic disability. Dystonic muscle contractions and obsessive-compulsive symptoms may share a common neurobiological basis related to cortical-basal dysfunction. Psychopathology, especially obsessive-compulsive symptoms, should be actively explored and treated in primary focal dystonia. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. Source

Abstract: Introduction and Objectives Novel oral anticoagulants are emerging options for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. They are increasingly used in clinical practice due to their simplicity of use and clinical benefits, but an important step is to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. The aim of the AFFORD study (A Review of Cost EFFectiveness of Novel ORal Anticoagulant Drugs) was to perform a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Knowledge databases to identify all cost-effectiveness studies of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF. Results The search identified 27 studies, 18 with dabigatran, three with apixaban, two with rivaroxaban and four with at least two of these drugs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 30 405±16 101 euros per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for dabigatran 110 mg, 17 566±16 902 euros/QALY for dabigatran 150 mg, 8102±3252 euros/QALY for age-adjusted dabigatran, 11 897±3341 euros/QALY for apixaban and 17 960±12 005 euros/QALY for rivaroxaban. Conclusion The present systematic review demonstrates that novel oral anticoagulants are cost-effective for stroke prevention in AF. © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved. Source

Aldir I.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Ocidental | Horta A.,Centro Hospitalar do Porto | Serrado M.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Norte
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2014

Objectives: Review of the available data on the currently available single-tablet regimens (STRs), from the analysis of efficacy and safety to the key points of value in terms of adherence, quality of life and pharmacoeconomic evaluation. Methods: For this narrative review, literature searches have been performed in PubMed, IndexRevMed and Cochrane, using the search terms HIV, single-tablet, one-pill, single dose, fixed-dose, and STR. These have been reviewed and complemented with the most recent publications of interest. Results: Fixed-dose combinations are a significant advance in antiretroviral treatment simplification, contributing to an increase in compliance with complex chronic therapies, thus improving patients' quality of life. Reducing the number of pills and daily doses is associated with higher adherence and better quality of life. As a fixed-dose combination tablet given once daily, EFV/FTC/TDF was the first available STR combining efficacy, tolerability and convenience, with the simplest dosing schedule and smallest numbers of pills of any ART combination therapy. The RPV/FTC/TDF is a next-generation NNRTI-based STR, a once daily complete ART regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Recently the combination of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was also approved by the European Commission, and is the first integrase inhibitor-based STR. Receiving antiretroviral therapy as once daily STR is associated with both clinical and economic benefits, which confirms previous research. Conclusions: The associated benefits of STRs provide a valid strategy for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Walss-Bass C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Fernandes J.M.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Ocidental | Roberts D.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Service H.,University of Helsinki | Velligan D.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2013

Social cognitive impairment is related to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. This impairment includes both deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), and cognitive biases including attributional bias and jumping to conclusions. Oxytocin (OXT) is a hormone that has been implicated in human social behavior, and that has also been associated with regulation of inflammation. In a cross-sectional study involving 60 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls, we examined associations between OXT and social cognitive capacity and bias. Secondary analyses examined associations between OXT and inflammation. We found significant correlations between OXT and social cognitive bias in the control group and in patients with delusions, but not in patients without delusions. Social cognitive capacity only correlated significantly with OXT in patients with delusions. A correlation between OXT and inflammation was observed only in patients without delusions. Findings suggest that OXT may be implicated in social cognition both in controls and in patients with delusions, but that this association may be blunted in patients without delusions. Inflammation appears to be related to OXT rather independently of social cognition. Future longitudinal and intervention studies with OXT are needed to clarify causality in the identified associations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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