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Laureano A.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central
Dermatology Online Journal | Year: 2015

Dermoscopy is a non-invasive, in vivo technique that increases accuracy in the diagnosis of both melanocytic and nonmelanocytic skin tumors. A 74-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, asymptomatic, slightly pigmented plaque on the back. The dermoscopic differential diagnosis of melanoma in situ versus superficial basal cell carcinoma is discussed, based on the presentation of peripheral brown irregular finger-like projections. These were also associated with peripheral fine short telangiectasias, shiny white to red structureless areas, a few brown globules, and small erosions. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of superficial pigmented basal cell carcinoma. A brief review of the dermoscopic structures associated with this common nonmelanocytic skin tumor is also made. © 2015 by the article author(s).

Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diverter devices represents an innovative technique in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.These new stents, self-expandable and of low porosity, are released through the microcatherization of the parent artery. The main goal of these systems is thereby rebuilding the vessel wall and excluding the aneurysmal formation of the arterial circulation.We show the preliminary results in treating 10 patients at Hospital de São José, Lisbon. These patients, with wide-necked (> 4 mm)or unfavorable dome/neck ratios (> 1.5) aneurysms, were treated with the PIPELINE® system, and angiographic control were made at three and six months. New control will be done at 12 months. The mean age of enrolled patients is 54.3 years; eight patients were female and two male. Aneurysms were incidentally discovered in two patients. The remaining patients were diagnosed during imaging investigation for headache (n = 3), visual field defect (n = 1), vertigo(n = 1) and at least one cranial palsy (n = 2). Only two patients had had prior subarachnoid hemorrhage and two patients underwent prior endovascular treatment with coils. The locations of aneurysms treated were the proximal segment of the middle cerebral artery(n = 1) and the paraophthalmic (n = 6), ophthalmic (n = 2) and cavernous (n = 4) internal carotid artery segments. Thirteen intracranial aneurysms were treated as three patients had multiple aneurysms. Control studies were conducted and shown an average degree of occlusion at three months of 74% and at six months of 86%. There was no reduction in size of one paraophthalmic artery aneurysm.The experience of this department is favorable to the use of flow-diverter devices to treat selected aneurysms. High occlusion rates were obtained given the existing challenges in the treatment of such aneurysms.

Ratilal B.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central
Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery | Year: 2011

The prophylactic administration of antibiotics to prevent infection and the prophylactic administration of anticonvulsants to prevent first seizure episodes are common practice in neurosurgery. If prophylactic medication therapy is not indicated, the patient not only incurs the discomfort and the inconvenience resulting from drug treatment but is also unnecessarily exposed to adverse drug reactions, and incurs extra costs. The main situations in which prophylactic anticonvulsants and antibiotics are used are described and those situations we found controversial in the literature and lack further investigation are identified: anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural hematomas, antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures in those suffering from brain tumors, antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures, and antibiotic prophylaxis for the surgical introduction of intracranial ventricular shunts.In the following we present systematic reviews of the literature in accordance with the standard protocol of The Cochrane Collaboration to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of these prophylactic medications in the situations mentioned. Our goal was to efficiently integrate valid information and provide a basis for rational decision-making.

Vincent J.-L.,Erasme University Hospital | Moreno R.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central
Critical Care | Year: 2010

General illness severity scores are widely used in the ICU to predict outcome, characterize disease severity and degree of organ dysfunction, and assess resource use. In this article we review the most commonly used scoring systems in each of these three groups. We examine the history of the development of the initial major systems in each group, discuss the construction of subsequent versions, and, when available, provide recent comparative data regarding their performance. Importantly, the different types of scores should be seen as complementary, rather than competitive and mutually exclusive. It is possible that their combined use could provide a more accurate indication of disease severity and prognosis. All these scoring systems will need to be updated with time as ICU populations change and new diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic techniques become available. © 2010 BioMed Central Ltd.

Ventura T.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central | Gomes M.C.,University of Lisbon | Carreira T.,University of Lisbon
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: Stress and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with premature and low birth weight babies, presumably through fetus over exposion to glucocorticoids. Antenatal stress also seems to have long-term effects upon infant development and adult health. However, medication for stress may carry risks to the expectant mother, therefore the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions should be investigated. Methods: Pregnant women (n=154) awaiting amniocentesis, were randomly assigned in the morning and the afternoon to three groups for 30. min: (1) listening to relaxing music, (2) sitting and reading magazines, and (3) sitting in the waiting-room. Before and after that period, they completed the Spielberger's State and Trait anxiety inventory and provided blood samples for cortisol. The groups were then compared regarding change in cortisol levels and anxiety. Results: Maternal cortisol and state anxiety were correlated (r=0.25, p=0.04) in the afternoon, but not in the morning. The larger decreases in cortisol occurred in the music group (-61.8. nmol/L, ANOVA: p=0.01), followed by magazine, being differences among groups more pronounced in the morning. Women in the music group also exhibited the greater decreases in state anxiety (p<0.001). Younger mothers with less gestational age were on average the most anxious, and also the ones with greater decreases in cortisol and anxiety levels after relaxation. Conclusion: A relaxing intervention as short as 30. min, especially listening to music, decreases plasma cortisol and self-reported state anxiety score. Pregnant women might benefit from the routine practice of relaxation in the imminence of clinical stressful events. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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