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Soares R.,University of Coimbra | Soares R.,Ipoinstituto Portugues Of Oncologia Francisco Gentil | Rocha G.,University of Coimbra | Rocha G.,Chuccentro Hospitalar iversitario Of Coimbra | And 3 more authors.
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2016

Over the last 30 years, research into HIV has advanced the knowledge of virus genetics and the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a specialized and multifunctional protein that plays important roles at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This protein interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins and with multiple activities including nuclear transport of the pre-integration complex (PIC) to the nucleus, transcriptional activation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition phase and induction of cell death via apoptosis. Specifically, Vpr has been shown to control many host cell functions through a variety of biological processes and by interaction with several cellular pathways. The different functions of Vpr may enhance viral replication and impair the immune system in HIV-1 infected patients. Importantly, functional defects induced by mutations in the Vpr protein correlate with slow disease progression of HIV-infected patients. Vpr is also associated with other concomitant pathologies developed by these patients, which may lead it to be considered as a potential novel therapeutic target. This review will focus on HIV-1 Vpr, mainly on the importance of its structural mutations on the progression of HIV infection, associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gomes A.A.,University of Aveiro | Gomes A.A.,University of Coimbra | Parchao C.,University of Aveiro | Parchao C.,Magalhaes Lemos Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Child Psychiatry and Human Development | Year: 2014

This study aimed primarily to compare the parent-reported sleep of children with ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) versus community children. Thirty children aged 5–13 years (83.3 % boys) diagnosed with HKD by their child and adolescent psychiatrists took part in this study, plus 30 community children, matched for sex, age, and school year. Compared to the controls, the HKD children showed significantly later bedtimes, stronger bedtime resistance, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep; more frequent behaviors and symptoms concerning falling asleep into parents bed, needing something special to initiate sleep, nightmares, sleep talking, sleep bruxism, fear from darkness, bedwetting, and, most notably, loud snoring (26.7 %); they also tended to show higher daytime somnolence. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/ HKD children may thus have more sleep-related problems than typically developing children. Alternatively, our results may reflect misdiagnoses; thus, special attention should be directed to comorbidity and differential diagnosis issues between sleep disturbances and ADHD/HKD. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

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