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Vilela E.M.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho | Bettencourt-Silva R.,Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao | Ribeiro V.G.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho
Acta Cardiologica

Objective A systematic review was carried out to study the pattern of BNP and NT-proBNP release after running. Methods Data were collected by searching the PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Results Fifty-three reports were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. Twenty-seven reports, representing 1,034 participants, presented data comparing post-running BNP or NT-proBNP levels with a pre-specified cut-off. Values exceeding the upper reference limit were seen in 22.9% and 35.9% of runners, respectively. Conclusion Studies have shown post-running values exceeding the upper reference limit in up to a third of runners. © 2015, Acta Cardiologica. All rights reserved. Source

Graca S.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho
BMJ case reports

Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure. Source

Costa S.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho
BMJ case reports

Angiosarcomas are rare malignant tumours that arise from endothelial cells lining vascular channels, representing 0.04% of malignant neoplasms of the breast. Breast angiosarcomas (BAs) were first described by Schmidt in 1887, and may be primary or secondary to the pre-existing conditions. Primary BAs are more common in young women and present as a palpable mass. Secondary BAs arise in older patients, frequently 5-6 years after radiotherapy, and present as a rash.The authors describe the case of an 83-year-old woman with no history of thoracic radiotherapy or surgery. She had been observed for a breast nodule where biopsy revealed phyllodes tumour. The patient refused surgery and returned 2 years later because of an impressive increase in tumour volume and skin ulceration. She underwent mastectomy with local skin flaps. Histopathological result revealed high-grade angiosarcoma of 15×12 cm. There was follow-up without evidence of recurrence, after radiotherapy. Source

Guimaraes M.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho | Bugalho A.,Hospital CUF Infante Santo Hospital CUF Descobertas | Bugalho A.,New University of Lisbon | Oliveira A.S.,Hospital Pulido Valente | And 2 more authors.
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia

There are currently no reliable instruments for assessing the onset and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or predicting its prognosis. Currently, a comprehensive assessment of COPD including several objective and subjective parameters is recommended. However, the lack of biomarkers precludes a correct assessment of COPD severity, which consequently hampers adequate therapeutic approaches and COPD control. In the absence of a definition of "well-controlled disease", a consensus regarding COPD control will be difficult to reach. However, COPD patient assessment should be multidimensional, and anchored in five points: control of symptoms, decline of pulmonary function, levels of physical activity, exacerbations, and Quality of Life.Several non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures are currently available to achieve disease control. Smoking cessation, vaccination, exercise training programs and pulmonary rehabilitation are recognized as important non-pharmacological measures but bronchodilators are the pivotal therapy in the control of COPD. This paper discusses several objective and subjective parameters that may bridge the gap between disease assessment and disease control. The authors conclude that, at present, it is not possible to reach a consensus regarding COPD control, essentially due to the lack of objective instruments to measure it. Some recommendations are set forth, but true COPD control awaits further objective assessments. © 2016. Source

Costa S.,Centro Hospitalar Gaia Espinho
BMJ case reports

Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. Source

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