Esquel, Argentina
Esquel, Argentina

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Drechsler-Santos E.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Robledo G.L.,National University of Cordoba | Limajunior N.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Malosso E.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 4 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016

A new poroid genus with two conspicuous and common species growing on living Fabaceae trees is described from the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests biome of Brazil. Both taxa in this forest pathogen genus resemble Phellinus rimosus macroscopically, but are distinguished by a dimitic hyphal system with skeletal hyphae present only in the trama of the tube layer while the context remains monomitic, and by the ellipsoid, thick-walled, adaxially flattened, yellow basidiospores that turn chestnut brown in KOH solution. Molecular and morphological studies of Brazilian specimens macroscopically similar to the Phellinus rimosusspecies complex were carried out to solve their phylogenetic relationships among the Hymenochaetaceae. Phellinotus gen. nov.with P. neoaridus sp. nov.as the genus type and P. piptadeniae comb. nov.are presented and described. Phylogenetically, Phellinotusis closely related to Arambarria, Inocutis, Fomitiporellaand other taxonomically unresolved terminal clades, and unrelated to Fulvifomesand Phylloporia. Phellinotusand other genera of poroid Hymenochaetaceae that lack setae or setal hyphae and produce thick-walled, colored (pale yellow to rusty brown) basidiospores form a phylogenetic group here named the ‘phellinotus clade’. Our results indicate the need to include taxa from unexplored areas in order to get a thorough understanding of the phylogeny of the Hymenochaetaceae. © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Baltazar J.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pildain M.B.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | Gorjon S.P.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | da Silveira R.M.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rajchenberg M.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP
Mycologia | Year: 2014

A combined dataset of rDNA ITS and LSU sequences was used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Hydnochaete peroxydata (=Hydnum peroxydatum), the type species of Hydnochaete. The species was retrieved nested within the Hymenochaete s. str. clade; therefore Hydnochaete is regarded as a synonym of Hymenochaete and the new combination Hymenochaete peroxydata is proposed. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.


Baltazar J.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Da Silveira R.M.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rajchenberg M.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

Examination of the original material of Asterostromella roseola Bres. ex Rick confirmed that it is a good morphological species, characterized by simple-septate generative hyphae, dendrohyphidia and halocystidia, and hyaline, smooth, IKI-basidiospores. Its morphological affinities with current accepted corticioid genera are discussed, and the new combination Dendrocorticium roseolum is proposed. A lectotype is selected and description and drawings are provided. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Rajchenberg M.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | Robledo G.,National University of Cordoba
Forest Pathology | Year: 2013

Summary: We surveyed the polypore species associated with living hosts in Argentina. We reviewed the literature on polypores found in Argentina and, in addition with the study of unpublished herbarium material, present a list of 87 species decaying living trees in native forests and introduced plantations. The rot type, host(s), distribution and remarks are presented for each species. Among 87 species found, 71 produce a white rot and 16 a brown rot in wood; 61 species were exclusively found on native hosts and 7 on exotic, cultivated hosts, while 18 were found on both types of substrates; one species, Amylosporus campbellii, was exclusively found associated with grasses. For most cases, there are no pathological studies based on rot measurement and culture isolation to determine incidence and severity of the decay. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Salomon M.E.S.,Ingenieria Forestal UNPSJB | Salomon M.E.S.,CONICET | Barroetavena C.,Ingenieria Forestal UNPSJB | Barroetavena C.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | And 4 more authors.
Southern Forests | Year: 2013

Temperate forests of southern Argentina and Chile cover a wide latitudinal and altitudinal range on both sides of the Andes, with Nothofagus species being one of the main tree species. Most of the larger remnants are protected within the limits of national parks and forest reserves. However, some of these are invaded by exotic conifers such as Pseudotsuga menziesii. In order to better understand the mycorrhizal condition within the Nothofagus-P. menziesii interaction, transects were established at six study sites along the effective recruitment area. Three treatments were established: Nothofagus forest without P. menziesii invasion (Forest), Nothofagus-P. menziesii matrix (Interface) and P. menziesii plantation lacking Nothofagus specimens (Plantation). A 2 kg mixed soil sample was taken at each treatment site and kept in brand-new plastic bags. A soil bioassay with Nothofagus seedlings acting as baits was set to evaluate the mycorrhizal inoculum potential and soil-fungi composition at each sampling treatment. Forty percent of the evaluated seedlings were found to be colonised by dark septate endophytes (DSE) fungi. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation percentage was significantly higher in plants growing in Forest soils (mean = 57.77%) when compared with Interface (mean = 42.53%) and Plantation (mean = 44.65%). The high incidence of DSE in young roots of Nothofagus seedlings in this study supports the hypothesis that DSE might be pioneering colonisers of young tree seedlings in secondary successional environments. For future interventions in the forest, either with productive or protective intentions, it should be taken into account the incidence of these fungi, which may have an important positive role in Nothofagus forest post-invasion recovery. © 2013 Copyright NISC (Pty) Ltd.


Pildain M.B.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | Pildain M.B.,CONICET | Pildain M.B.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Visnovsky S.B.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from Patagonia was nested within the species-rich Elata Subclade and represents a new species-level lineage (informally designated Mel-37) within Elata Clade. The present collections from Patagonia constitute the southernmost latitude from which Morchella has been reported to date. The identification of two Argentine morels as North American taxa is therefore a remarkable biogeographic pattern. In view of the hypothesis that the Elata Clade originated in western North America, we speculate that at least two of the lineages colonized South America from North America via long distance dispersal, migration or, more likely, they were introduced with the exotic tree species that they were collected near. © 2014 The British Mycological Society.


Salgado Salomon M.E.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Salgado Salomon M.E.,CONICET | Barroetavena C.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Barroetavena C.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | And 4 more authors.
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2013

Pseudotsuga menziesii is one of the most widely planted conifers in the Patagonian Andes of Argentina, with invading characteristics that are widely reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of its obligate mycorrhizal associations in limiting or fostering the establishment of invading seedlings. We studied the richness and abundance of endo- (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (EM) present in P. menziesii seedlings growing in six Nothofagus forests invaded by P. menziesii seedlings (Nothofagus + P. menziesii) matrices. One transect along the maximum effective recruitment distance (ERA) was established at each site in order to wrench seedlings and sample soils. P. menziesii showed effective associations with a wide range of mycorrhizal symbionts: AM (ranging between 13.21 and 37.11%), EM (ranging between 79.91 and 89.14%) and Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE). Seedlings' mycorrhization percentages were always high, suggesting a good nursery effect provided by neighboring plantations. Mycorrhizal abundance (AM% and EM%), EM morphotypes richness and evenness showed significant differences between sites, indicating that P. menziesii displays a high plasticity being capable to select the more convenient mycorrhizal arrangement at each invaded site. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Salomon M.E.S.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Salomon M.E.S.,CONICET | Barroetavena C.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Barroetavena C.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | And 2 more authors.
Nova Hedwigia | Year: 2014

Pseudotsuga menziesii, one of the most widely planted exotic Pinaceae in NW Patagonia (Argentina), has been introduced in different environmental conditions showing an invasive behavior on neighboring Nothofagus forests. Recent researches have shown high abundance of ecto- (EM) and ectendomycorrhiza in Ps. menziesii seedlings from Patagonia but the presence, type and abundance of endomycorrhiza (arbuscular mycorrhiza, AM) in the context of invasion processes remain unknown. We studied the AM status of invading Ps. menziesii seedlings from Nothofagus-Ps. menziesii invasion matrices in Patagonia, including AM colonization percentages and AM types, and we analyzed the evolution of AM colonization with seedlings' age in relation with EM colonization. Twenty-five, up to 5 years old seedlings from each six Nothofagus-Ps. menziesii invasion matrices were collected to measure AM and EM colonization percentages and to determine AM root colonization types (Arum or Paris). AM colonization varied from 23.7-29.4% among sites, with different proportions of Arum- and Paris-types. Also, the co-existence of both AM types was found in the same plant in all studied sites. Dark Septate Endophytes were found widely distributed, abundant, and coexisting with AM and EM in roots. A clear AM-EM colonization succession was not found, as both AM and EM colonization coexist from the beginning of seedlings' establishment. A great plasticity regarding the mutualistic associations established by Ps. menziesii revealed a highly beneficial strategy to succeed in the invasion process. © 2014 J. Cramer in Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


Dai Y.-C.,Beijing Forestry University | Xue H.-J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Vlasak J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Rajchenberg M.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

Polyporus accommodates species with stipitate basidiocarps, a dimitic hyphal system with skeleto-binding hyphae, and hyaline, thin-walled, more or less cylindrical basidiospores. The species of Polyporus are divided into six morphological groups, of which Melanopus is characterized by coriaceous basidiocarps, thin context and a black cuticle on the stipe. In this study, we explore the phylogeny and species diversity of Polyporus sensu lato focusing on the group Melanopus based on global samples. Our combined ITS and nLSU dataset included 117 collections represented by 117 ITS and 94 nLSU sequences, of which 43 ITS and 37 nLSU sequences were newly generated. The resulting phylogenetic analysis recovered four clades, Favolus, Neofavolus, Melanopus and Polyporellus clades, while several species in the morphological groups Melanopus and Polyporus were outside these clades. Combined with morphological evidence, three new species in the Melanopus clade, Polyporus americanus, P. austroandinus and P. conifericola, are newly described and illustrated, and their distinctive characters are discussed. The illegitimate name Polyporus fraxineus is renamed as Polyporus fraxinicola. The phylogeny and taxonomy of each species in group Melanopus (morphology) or Melanopus clade (phylogeny) and related species are briefly discussed. © 2013 Mushroom Research Foundation.


Rajchenberg M.,Centro Forestal CIEFAP
Mycologia | Year: 2011

This is a review of the available knowledge on nuclear behavior of the mycelium within polypore genera (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota). Information on 68 genera showed that nuclear behavior is a distinct and consistent feature at genus level and can be coupled with phylogenetic differentiation. The sole exception was found in Polyporus, where different species with normal, heterocytic and astatocoenocytic nuclear behaviors were found. Of the 68 genera treated 41 (60.3%) displayed a normal nuclear behavior, nine (13.2%) were heterocytic, nine (13.2%) were astatocoenocytic and another eight (11.8%) were holocoenocytic. In 95% of the genera a unique compatibility system was found, with the exceptions of Antrodia, which includes both homothallic and bipolar species all associated with a normal nuclear behavior, and Spongipellis, in which bipolar and tetrapolar species are found, all displaying an astatocoenocytic nuclear behavior. Normal and heterocytic nuclear behaviors were associated mostly with tetrapolarity, astatocoenocity was associated mostly with bipolarity, and holocoenocity was associated with either bipolarity or purported homothallism. The combination of nuclear behavior with mating system and brown or white rot capability appeared as a strong feature characterizing and distinguishing the genera of polypores, each combination being valuable to differentiate between apparently related genera, as is supported by phylogenetic studies. Several examples are presented to support this idea, as well as the cases of species that are problematic to this concept. Poroid genera of Hymenochaetaceae were treated apart because of the lack of knowledge regarding their nuclear behavior. In addition new information on the sexuality and/or nuclear behavior of 15 polyporoid taxa is given. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America, Lawrence, KS 66044-8897.

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