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Sayuri Brian Patrick,University of Sao Paulo | Bergo E.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Cardoso J.C.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Sallum M.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Sallum M.A.M.,Centro Estadual Of Vigilancia Em Saude
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Phylogenetic relationships among species of the Myzorhynchella Section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were investigated using the nuclear ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), the nuclear white gene and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions. The recently described Anopheles pristinus and resurrected Anopheles guarani were also included in the study. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses found Anopheles parvus to be the most distantly related species within the Section, a finding that is consistent with morphology. An. pristinus and An. guarani were clearly resolved from Anopheles antunesi and Anopheles lutzii, respectively. An. lutzii collected in the same mountain range as the type locality were found within a strongly supported clade, whereas individuals from the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, tentatively identified as An. lutzii based on adult female external morphology, were distinct from An. lutzii, An. antunesi and from each other, and may therefore represent two new sympatric species. A more detailed examination of An. lutzii sensu lato along its known geographic range is recommended to resolve these anomalous relationships. Source

Veloso R.D.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Aerts D.R.G.C.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Fetzer L.O.,Equipe de Vigilancia de Doencas Transmissiveis | dos Anjos C.B.,Centro Estadual Of Vigilancia Em Saude
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2011

In Brazil, rabies is an endemic disease with a fatality rate of 100%. The number of cases has decreased, but the number of cases for treatment after exposure and treatment dropout is still high. This study investigated the causes of antirabies treatment abandon, after exposure, in Porto Alegre (RS, Brazil), from July to December 2006. A case series was designed. Two hundred and eighty abandon cases were selected through randomized systematic sampling, out of 962 registered in Sinan. Data was collected in people's homes through interviews, by means of a questionnaire. According to the interviewees, 66.4% concluded the prescribed number of vaccines. This information was not registered in Sinan. Among the subjects confirmed of abandoning the treatment (94/280), 24.5% reported that they thought it was not necessary to complete the treatment, while 13.8% felt that they did not receive clear guidelines about what to do. Health services attempted to contact absents in only 19.2% of the cases. Data entered in Sinan present failures. These occurred because patients started treatment at one health service and continued in a different one. As a consequence, information about the conclusion of the treatment was not entered into the system. Source

Figueiredo Voizzoni V.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Barbosa Silva A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Medeiros Cardoso K.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Barbosa dos Santos F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest causes a less severe rickettsiosis, with two cases confirmed until now. The tick species Amblyomma ovale is appointed as the main vector of this bacterium. The southern region of Brazil has reported patients with spotted fever who have milder symptoms. In 2013, during an investigation of rickettsiosis cases, an A. ovale tick was found attached to a man in an area where there were two cases. The parasite was processed for molecular analysis and the rickettsial infection was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of genes ompA, ompB and geneD (sca4). In the present study the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was identified in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Since A. ovale, its main vector, is found frequently parasitizing dogs, animals that can cross international borders freely in southern Brazil, this bacteria can bring major concerns in terms of public health. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wagner V.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silveira J.B.,Centro Estadual Of Vigilancia Em Saude | Tondo E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods-especially eggs and meat products-were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. © 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Source

Cardoso J.D.C.,Centro Estadual Of Vigilancia Em Saude | Bergo E.S.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Oliveira T.M.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Sant'Ana D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2012

Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquin municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. © 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source

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