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Ruscica M.,University of Milan | Pavanello C.,University of Milan | Gandini S.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Gomaraschi M.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the commonest cause of death worldwide. Different strategies for their primary prevention have been planned, taking into account the main known risk factors, which include an atherogenic lipid profile and visceral fat excess. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, parallel, single-center study with a nutritional intervention duration of 12 weeks. Whole soy foods corresponding to 30 g/day soy protein were given in substitution of animal foods containing the same protein amount. Results: Soy nutritional intervention resulted in a reduction in the number of MetS features in 13/26 subjects. Moreover, in the soy group we observed a significant improvement of median percentage changes for body weight (−1.5 %) and BMI (−1.5 %), as well as for atherogenic lipid markers, namely TC (−4.85 %), LDL-C (−5.25 %), non-HDL-C (−7.14 %) and apoB (−14.8 %). Since the majority of the studied variables were strongly correlated, three factors were identified which explained the majority (52 %) of the total variance in the whole data set. Among them, factor 1, which loaded lipid and adipose variables, explained the 22 % of total variance, showing a statistically significant difference between treatment arms (p = 0.002). Conclusions: The inclusion of whole soy foods (corresponding to 30 g/day protein) in a lipid-lowering diet significantly improved a relevant set of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Ruscica M.,Centro Dislipidemie | Ruscica M.,University of Milan | Gomaraschi M.,Centro Dislipidemie | Gomaraschi M.,University of Milan | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2014

Background Primary cardiovascular prevention may be achieved by lifestyle/nutrition improvements and specific drugs, although a relevant role is now emerging for specific functional foods and nutraceuticals. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a nutraceutical multitarget approach in subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk and to compare it with pravastatin treatment. Subjects Thirty patients with moderate dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults) were included in an 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover study and took either placebo or a nutraceutical combination that contained red yeast rice extract, berberine, policosanol, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid (Armolipid Plus). Subsequently, they were subjected to another 8-week treatment with pravastatin 10 mg/d. This dosage was selected on the basis of its expected -20% efficacy in reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Results Treatment with Armolipid Plus led to a significant reduction of total cholesterol (-12.8%) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-21.1%), similar to pravastatin (-16% and -22.6%, respectively), and an increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8%). Armolipid Plus improved the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, whereas adiponectin levels were unchanged. Conclusions These results indicate that this nutraceutical approach shows a lipid-lowering activity comparable to pravastatin treatment. Hence, it may be a safe and useful option, especially in conditions of moderate cardiovascular risk, in which a pharmacologic intervention may not be appropriate. © 2014 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.


Pavanello C.,Centro Dislipidemie | Mombelli G.,Centro Dislipidemie
Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2015

Numerous clinical studies with objectives such as mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular (CV) have reported the benefit of treatment for dyslipidemia with lipid-lowering therapy, in particular using the statins. But the trials conducted in past years did not consider the gender differences of statin effect, because women were poorly represented. All the results in terms of response, efficacy, reduction of LDL cholesterol and CV risk in primary and secondary prevention refer to men. In these recent years, it emerges the need to consider the different lipoprotein profile during lifetime and CV risk between men and women. Furthermore it is necessary to consider that, in patients with coronary artery disease, the lipid goal achieved is different between the two genders. Finally, we have to evaluate the side effects mostly present in women. In conclusion, there is a different prescription of these treatments in particular in the dosage used, that it is insufficient in women with cardiovascular disease. More recently it has emerged the exigency to use new guidelines that clearly indicate how should be the medical care, therefore, the specific way to treat men and women. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.


Magni P.,University of Milan | Magni P.,Centro Dislipidemie | Macchi C.,University of Milan | Morlotti B.,Centro Dislipidemie | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

The use of statins for cardiovascular disease prevention is clearly supported by clinical evidence. However, in January 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released an advice on statin risk reporting that "statin benefit is indisputable, but they need to be taken with care and knowledge of their side effects". Among them the by far most common complication is myopathy, ranging from common but clinically benign myalgia to rare but life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. This class side effect appears to be dose dependent, with more lipophilic statin (i.e., simvastatin) carrying a higher overall risk. Hence, to minimize statin-associated myopathy, clinicians should take into consideration a series of factors that potentially increase this risk (i.e., drug-drug interactions, female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and vitamin D deficiency). Whenever it is appropriate to stop statin treatment, the recommendations are to stay off statin until resolution of symptoms or normalization of creatine kinase values. Afterwards, clinicians have several options to treat dyslipidemia, including the use of a lower dose of the same statin, intermittent non-daily dosing of statin, initiation of a different statin, alone or in combination with nonstatin lipid-lowering agents, and substitution with red yeast rice. © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. All rights reserved.


Magni P.,University of Milan | Magni P.,Centro Dislipidemie | MacChi C.,University of Milan | Sirtori C.R.,Centro Dislipidemie | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2016

Clear evidence supports a role for circulating and locally-produced osteocalcin (OC) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular (CV) lesions and CV risk, also in combination with metabolic changes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Reduced plasma OC levels are associated with greater incidence of pathological CV changes, like arterial and valvular calcification, coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and increased carotid intima-media thickness. The actual relationship between OC levels and incidence of major CV events is, however, still unclear. Moreover, reduced circulating OC levels have been mostly associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome or T2DM, indicating relevant OC actions on pancreatic β-cells and insulin secretion and activity. Based on these observations, this review article will attempt to summarize the current evidence on the potential usefulness of circulating OC as a biomarker for CV and metabolic risk, also evaluating the currently open issues in this area of research. © 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston 2016.


Ruscica M.,University of Milan | Ruscica M.,Centro Dislipidemie | MacChi C.,University of Milan | MacChi C.,Centro Dislipidemie | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

The use of statins for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention is clearly supported by clinical evidence. Although statin therapy is rather well tolerated, recent data from prospective and retrospective clinical trials and related meta-analyses suggest an increased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in association with such treatment. The incidence of this adverse effect is not negligible, especially for specific subsets of patients, such as women, elderly, presence of familial history of T2DM and Asian ethnicity. Statin-driven T2DM appears to be a medication class-effect, mostly not related to potency nor to individual statin, as well as to be independent of previous history of CVD. Therefore, implementation of strategies for identification of patients using statins and at specific risk of incident T2DM, as well as of different therapeutic options is important and is discussed in this article. As most authors emphasized that benefits of CVD reduction by statin therapy seem to far exceed the risk of T2DM development itself, these medications remain the cornerstone for primary and secondary CVD prevention, although a specific attention to glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome features should be payed before and during statin treatment, especially in cohorts at greater risk. © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine.


PubMed | Centro Dislipidemie and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical lipidology | Year: 2014

Primary cardiovascular prevention may be achieved by lifestyle/nutrition improvements and specific drugs, although a relevant role is now emerging for specific functional foods and nutraceuticals.The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a nutraceutical multitarget approach in subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk and to compare it with pravastatin treatment.Thirty patients with moderate dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults) were included in an 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover study and took either placebo or a nutraceutical combination that contained red yeast rice extract, berberine, policosanol, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid (Armolipid Plus). Subsequently, they were subjected to another 8-week treatment with pravastatin 10 mg/d. This dosage was selected on the basis of its expected -20% efficacy in reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.Treatment with Armolipid Plus led to a significant reduction of total cholesterol (-12.8%) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-21.1%), similar to pravastatin (-16% and -22.6%, respectively), and an increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8%). Armolipid Plus improved the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, whereas adiponectin levels were unchanged.These results indicate that this nutraceutical approach shows a lipid-lowering activity comparable to pravastatin treatment. Hence, it may be a safe and useful option, especially in conditions of moderate cardiovascular risk, in which a pharmacologic intervention may not be appropriate.

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