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Francone M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Di Cesare E.,University of LAquila | Cademartiri F.,Vascular Imaging | Cademartiri F.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 14 more authors.
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2014

Objectives Forty sites were involved in this multicenter and multivendor registry, which sought to evaluate indications, spectrum of protocols, impact on clinical decision making and safety profile of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Materials and methods Data were prospectively collected on a 6-month period and included 3376 patients (47.2 ± 19 years; range 1-92 years). Recruited centers were asked to complete a preliminary general report followed by a single form/patient. Referral physicians were not required to exhibit any specific certificate of competency in CMR imaging. Results Exams were performed with 1.5 T scanners in 96% of cases followed by 3 T (3%) and 1 T (1%) magnets and contrast was administered in 84% of cases. The majority of cases were performed for the workup of inflammatory heart disease/cardiomyopathies representing overall 55.7% of exams followed by the assessment of myocardial viability and acute infarction (respectively 6.9% and 5.9% of patients). In 49% of cases the final diagnosis provided was considered relevant and with impact on patient's clinical/therapeutic management. Safety evaluation revealed 30 (0.88%) clinical events, most of which due to patient's preexisting conditions. Radiological reporting was recorded in 73% of exams. Conclusions CMR is performed in a large number of centers in Italy with relevant impact on clinical decision making and high safety profile. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Pulakazhi Venu V.K.,University of Milan | Uboldi P.,University of Milan | Dhyani A.,University of Milan | Patrini A.,University of Milan | And 7 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2015

The primary transcript of fibronectin undergoes alternative splicing in the cassette-type EDA and EDB exons and in the IIICs segment to generate different protein isoforms. Human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with a more stable phenotype are enriched with EDA containing fibronectin (FN-EDA). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EDA containing fibronectin during atherogenesis. Mice constitutively expressing or lacking the EDA domain of fibronectin (EDA+/+ or EDA-/-) were crossed with ApoE-/- or LDL-R-/- mice and fed with a western type diet for 12 weeks. Lack of FN-EDA resulted in reduced atherosclerosis and in a plaque phenotype characterised by decreased calponin positive VSMC’s (-15 %) and increased macrophages (+20 %). This was paralleled by increased MMP2, MMP9, and reduced TIMP2, collagen 1A1, 1A2 and 3A1 gene expression compared to that of wild-type and EDA+/+ mice. In vitro, VSMCs and macrophages isolated from EDA-/- mice showed increased MMPs expression and activity compared to wild-type or EDA+/+ mice. Albumin-Cre recombinase/ EDA+/+/ApoE-/- mice, which produce EDA containing FN only in peripheral tissues, presented an extension, a composition and a gene expression pattern in the atherosclerotic lesions similar to that of controls. The inclusion of EDA in FN results in larger atherosclerotic plaques compared to mice lacking EDA but with a more favourable phenotype in two animals models of atherosclerosis. This effect depends on the EDA-containing fibronectin produced by cells in the vasculature but not in the liver. These observations set the stage for investigating the properties of circulating EDA containing FN in improving plaque stability. © Schattauer 2015.

Caiani E.G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Colombo A.,Polytechnic of Milan | Pepi M.,IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino | Piazzese C.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology | Year: 2014

AIMS: To propose a nearly automated left ventricular (LV) three-dimensional (3D) surface segmentation procedure, based on active shape modelling (ASM) and built on a database of 3D echocardiographic (3DE) LV surfaces, for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, and to test its accuracy for LV volumes computation compared with 'gold standard' manual tracings and discs-summation method.METHODS AND RESULTS: The ASM was created based on segmented LV surfaces (4D LV analysis, Tomtec) from 3DE datasets of 205 patients. Then, it was applied to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging short-axis (SAX) images stack of 12 consecutive patients. After proper realignment using two- and four-chambers CMR long-axis views both as reference and for initializing LV apex and base (six points in total), the ASM was iteratively and automatically updated to match the information of all the SAX planes contemporaneously, resulting in an endocardial LV 3D mesh from which volume was directly derived. The same CMR images were analysed by an experienced cardiologist to derive end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were applied vs. the manual 'gold standard'. Active shape modelling results showed high correlations with manual values both for LV volumes (r(2) > 0.98) and ejection fraction (EF) (r(2) > 0.90), non-significant biases and narrow limits of agreement.CONCLUSION: The proposed method resulted in accurate detection of 3D LV endocardial surfaces, which lead to fast and reliable measurements of LV volumes and EF when compared with manual tracing of CMR SAX images. The segmented 3D mesh, including a realistic LV apex and base, could constitute a novel starting point for more realistic patient-specific finite element modelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Merli G.,IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino | Chiumello D.,University of Milan
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2015

Maxillofacial trauma poses a challenge for the anesthesiologist because injuries can often compromise the patient's airways. Airway maintenance is the first step in the American College of Surgeons Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS®) protocol. However, clinical dilemmas may arise about the best way to manage a potentially life-threatening injury. There are no recommendations about the best time to intubate, the warning signs for deciding to intubate, or which device should be used when difficulty is expected. In this context the ATLS® approach is important but not sufficient. It is also necessary to recognize and be able to manage specific problems in this scenario where clinical priorities may be conflicting, may suddenly change or may be hidden. This clinical review discusses the complexity of this scenario, providing an overview of the conditions at greatest risk for airway obstruction and the options for airway management, on the basis of the recent literature. Clinicians must recognize the milestones and pitfalls of this topic in order to adopt a systematic approach for airway management, to identify specific characteristics associated with it, and to establish the utility of different instruments for airway management. © 2015 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

Esposito S.,University of Milan | Salice P.,Cardiology Unit | Bosis S.,University of Milan | Ghiglia S.,Cardiology Unit | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Although the most frequent extra-pulmonary manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection involve the cardiovascular system, no data regarding heart function in infants with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection have yet been systematically collected. The aim of this study was to verify the real frequency of heart involvement in patients with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection, and whether infants with mild or moderate disease also risk heart malfunction.Methods: A total of 69 otherwise healthy infants aged 1-12 months with bronchiolitis hospitalised in standard wards were enrolled. Pernasal flocked swabs were performed to collect specimens for the detection of RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and a blood sample was drawn to assess troponin I concentrations. On the day of admission, all of the infants underwent 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and a complete heart evaluation with echocardiography. Patients were re-evaluated by investigators blinded to the etiological and cardiac findings four weeks after enrolment.Results: Regardless of their clinical presentation, sinoatrial blocks were identified in 26/34 RSV-positive patients (76.5%) and 1/35 RSV-negative patients (2.9%) (p < 0.0001). The blocks recurred more than three times over 24 hours in 25/26 RSV-positive patients (96.2%) and none of the RSV-negative infants. Mean and maximum heart rates were significantly higher in the RSV-positive infants (p < 0.05), as was low-frequency power and the low and high-frequency power ratio (p < 0.05). The blocks were significantly more frequent in the children with an RSV load of ≥100,000 copies/mL than in those with a lower viral load (p < 0.0001). Holter ECG after 28 ± 3 days showed the complete regression of the heart abnormalities.Conclusions: RSV seems associated with sinoatrial blocks and transient rhythm alterations even when the related respiratory problems are mild or moderate. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these rhythm problems and whether they remain asymptomatic and transient even in presence of severe respiratory involvement or chronic underlying disease. © 2010 Esposito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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