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Pastina M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Malosetti M.,Wageningen University | Gazaffi R.,University of Sao Paulo | Mollinari M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the performance of sugarcane progenies in breeding programs are commonly evaluated across a range of locations and harvest years, many of the QTL detection methods ignore two- and three-way interactions between QTL, harvest, and location. In this work, a strategy for QTL detection in multi-harvest-location trial data, based on interval mapping and mixed models, is proposed and applied to map QTL effects on a segregating progeny from a biparental cross of pre-commercial Brazilian cultivars, evaluated at two locations and three consecutive harvest years for cane yield (tonnes per hectare), sugar yield (tonnes per hectare), fiber percent, and sucrose content. In the mixed model, we have included appropriate (co)variance structures for modeling heterogeneity and correlation of genetic effects and non-genetic residual effects. Forty-six QTLs were found: 13 QTLs for cane yield, 14 for sugar yield, 11 for fiber percent, and 8 for sucrose content. In addition, QTL by harvest, QTL by location, and QTL by harvest by location interaction effects were significant for all evaluated traits (30 QTLs showed some interaction, and 16 none). Our results contribute to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to biomass production and sucrose content in sugarcane. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Moura J.C.M.S.,Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro | Moura J.C.M.S.,University of Campinas | Araujo P.,University of Campinas | Brito M.D.S.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (α-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion: Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus. © 2012 Moura et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Taniguti L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Schaker P.D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Benevenuto J.,University of Sao Paulo | Peters L.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Sporisorium scitamineum is a biotrophic fungus responsible for the sugarcane smut, a worldwide spread disease. This study provides the complete sequence of individual chromosomes of S. scitamineum from telomere to telomere achieved by a combination of PacBio long reads and Illumina short reads sequence data, as well as a draft sequence of a second fungal strain. Comparative analysis to previous available sequences of another strain detected few polymorphisms among the three genomes. The novel complete sequence described herein allowed us to identify and annotate extended subtelomeric regions, repetitive elements and the mitochondrial DNA sequence. The genome comprises 19,979,571 bases, 6,677 genes encoding proteins, 111 tRNAs and 3 assembled copies of rDNA, out of our estimated number of copies as 130. Chromosomal reorganizations were detected when comparing to sequences of S. reilianum, the closest smut relative, potentially influenced by repeats of transposable elements. Repetitive elements may have also directed the linkage of the two mating-type loci. The fungal transcriptome profiling from in vitro and from interaction with sugarcane at two time points (early infection and whip emergence) revealed that 13.5% of the genes were differentially expressed in planta and particular to each developmental stage. Among them are plant cell wall degrading enzymes, proteases, lipases, chitin modification and lignin degradation enzymes, sugar transporters and transcriptional factors. The fungus also modulates transcription of genes related to surviving against reactive oxygen species and other toxic metabolites produced by the plant. Previously described effectors in smut/plant interactions were detected but some new candidates are proposed. Ten genomic islands harboring some of the candidate genes unique to S. scitamineum were expressed only in planta. RNAseq data was also used to reassure gene predictions. © 2015 Taniguti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Costa E.A.,University of Campinas | Costa E.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Anoni C.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Mancini M.C.,University of Campinas | And 12 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2016

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping contributes to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs by providing information about the genetic effects, positioning and number of QTLs. Combined with marker-assisted selection, it can help breeders reduce the time required to develop new sugarcane varieties. We performed a QTL mapping study for important agronomic traits in sugarcane using the composite interval mapping method for outcrossed species. A new approach allowing the 1:2:1 segregation ratio and different ploidy levels for SNP markers was used to construct an integrated genetic linkage map that also includes AFLP and SSR markers. Were used 688 molecular markers with 1:1, 3:1 and 1:2:1 segregation ratios. A total of 187 individuals from a bi-parental cross (IACSP95-3018 and IACSP93-3046) were assayed across multiple harvests from two locations. The evaluated yield components included stalk diameter (SD), stalk weight (SW), stalk height (SH), fiber percentage (Fiber), sucrose content (Pol) and soluble solid content (Brix). The genetic linkage map covered 4512.6 cM and had 118 linkage groups corresponding to 16 putative homology groups. A total of 25 QTL were detected for SD (six QTL), SW (five QTL), SH (four QTL), Fiber (five QTL), Pol (two QTL) and Brix (three QTL). The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 0.069 to 3.87 %, with a low individual effect because of the high ploidy level. The mapping model provided estimates of the segregation ratio of each mapped QTL (1:2:1, 3:1 or 1:1). Our results provide information about the genetic organization of the sugarcane genome and constitute the first step toward a better dissection of complex traits. © 2016 The Author(s) Source


Pinto L.R.,Centro Avancado Da Pesquisa Tecnologica Do Agronegocio Of Cana | Garcia A.A.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Pastina M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira L.H.M.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2010

Expressed sequence tags derived markers have a great potential to be used in functional map construction and QTL tagging. In the present work, sugarcane genomic probes and expressed sequence tags having homology to genes, mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolism were used in RFLP assays to identify putative QTLs as well as their epistatic interactions for fiber content, cane yield, pol and tones of sugar per hectare, at two crop cycles in a progeny derived from a bi-parental cross of sugarcane elite materials. A hundred and twenty marker trait associations were found, of which 26 at both crop cycle and 32 only at first ratoon cane. A sucrose synthase derived marker was associated with a putative QTL having a high negative effect on cane yield and also with a QTL having a positive effect on Pol at both crop cycles. Fifty digenic epistatic marker interactions were identified for the four traits evaluated. Of these, only two were observed at both crop cycles. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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