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Gomes J.M.,University of Porto | Papaderos P.,University of Porto | Kehrig C.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Vilchez J.M.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | And 28 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

Context. The morphological, spectroscopic, and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, oαer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. Aims. This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (<∼ 150 Mpc) ETGs from CALIFA, complementing a previous 1D analysis of the same sample. Methods. The analysis presented here includes Hα intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. It is supplemented by ratio maps, which are a more ecient means to quantify the role of photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component than alternative mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Results. Confirming and strengthening our previous conclusions, we find that ETGs span a broad continuous sequence in the properties of their wim, exemplified by two characteristic classes. The first (type i) comprises systems with a nearly constant EW(Hα) in their extranuclear component, which quantitatively agrees with (but is no proof of) the hypothesis that photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component is the main driver of extended wim emission. The second class (type ii) stands for virtually wim-evacuated ETGs with a very low (0.5 Ã), outwardly increasing EW(Hα). These two classes appear indistinguishable from one another by their LINER-specific emission-line ratios in their extranuclear component. Here we extend the tentative classification we proposed previously by the type i+, which is assigned to a subset of type i ETGs exhibiting ongoing low-level star-forming activity in their periphery. This finding along with faint traces of localized star formation in the extranuclear component of several of our sample galaxies points to a non-negligible contribution by OB stars to the global ionizing photon budget in ETGs. Additionally, our data again highlight the diversity of ETGs in their gaseous and stellar kinematics. While in one half of our sample, gas and stars show similar (yet not necessarily identical) velocity patterns that are both dominated by rotation along the major galaxy axis, our analysis also documents several cases of kinematical decoupling between gas and stars, or rotation along the minor galaxy axis. We point out that the generally very low (<∼ 1) EW(Hα) of ETGs requires a careful quantitative assessment of potential observational and analysis biases in studies of their wim. With standard emission-line fitting tools, Balmer emission lines become progressively dificult to detect below an EW(Hα) ∼ 3 Ã, therefore our current understanding of the presence and 2D emission patterns and kinematics of the diαuse wim ETGs may be severely incomplete. We demonstrate that at the typical emission-line detection threshold of ∼2 Ã in previous studies, most of the extranuclear wim emission in an ETG may evade detection, which could in turn cause ETGs to be classified as entirely gas-devoid systems. Conclusions. This study adds further observational evidence for a considerable heterogeneity among ETGs with regard to the physical properties and 2D kinematics of their extended wim component, and it clearly shows that a comprehensive understanding of these systems requires IFS studies over their entire optical extent. © ESO 2016. Source

Barrera-Ballesteros J.K.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Barrera-Ballesteros J.K.,University of La Laguna | Falcon-Barroso J.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Falcon-Barroso J.,University of La Laguna | And 30 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

We present 80 stellar and ionised gas velocity maps from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey in order to characterise the kinematic orientation of non-interacting galaxies. The study of galaxies in isolation is a key step towards understanding how fast-external processes, such as major mergers, affect kinematic properties in galaxies. We derived the global and individual (projected approaching and receding sides) kinematic position angles (PAs) for both the stellar and ionised gas line-of-sight velocity distributions. When compared to the photometric PA, we find that morpho-kinematic differences are smaller than 22 degrees in 90% of the sample for both stellar and nebular components and that internal kinematic misalignments are generally smaller than 16 degrees. We find a tight relation between the global stellar and ionised gas kinematic PA consistent with circular-flow pattern motions in both components (~90% of the sample has differences smaller than 16 degrees). This relation also holds, generally in barred galaxies across the bar and galaxy disc scales. Our findings suggest that even in the presence of strong bars, both the stellar and the gaseous components tend to follow the gravitational potential of the disc. As a result, kinematic orientation can be used to assess the degree of external distortions in interacting galaxies. © ESO, 2014. Source

Garcia-Lorenzo B.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Garcia-Lorenzo B.,University of La Laguna | Marquez I.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Barrera-Ballesteros J.K.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | And 38 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution.Aims. The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold.Methods. After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O? ii] λλ3726,3729, [O? iii] λλ4959,5007, Hα+[N? ii] λλ6548,6584, and [SII]λλ6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O? iii] λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles.Results. At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear photometric-kinematic misaligments. There is evidence of asymmetries in the emission line profiles in 117 out of the 177 analyzed galaxies, suggesting the presence of kinematically distinct gaseous components located at different distances from the optical nucleus. The kinematic decoupling between the dominant and secondary component/s suggested by the observed asymmetries in the profiles can be characterized by a limited set of parameters.Conclusions. This work constitutes the first determination of the ionized gas kinematics of the galaxies observed in the CALIFA survey. The derived velocity fields, the reported kinematic distortions/peculiarities and the identification of the presence of several gaseous components in different regions of the objects might be used as additional criteria for selecting galaxies for specific studies. © 2014 ESO. Source

Garcia-Benito R.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic | Zibetti S.,National institute for astrophysics | Sanchez S.F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Husemann B.,European Southern Observatory | And 82 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improvedspectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2.4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra. © ESO, 2015. Source

Caballero J.A.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Caballero J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Montes D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Klutsch A.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Aims.We investigated in detail the system WDS 19312+3607, whose primary is an active M4.5Ve star previously inferred to be young (r ∼ 300-500 Ma) based on its high X-ray luminosity. Methods.We collected intermediate- and low-resolution optical spectra taken with 2m-class telescopes, photometric data from the B to 8 μ m bands, and data for eleven astrometric epochs with a time baseline of over 56 years for the two components in the system, G 125-15 and G 125-14. Results.We derived the M4.5V spectral types of both stars, confirmed their common proper motion, estimated their heliocentric distance and projected physical separation, determined their Galactocentric space velocities, and deduced a most-probable age of older than 600 Ma. We discovered that the primary, G 125-15, is an inflated, double-lined, spectroscopic binary with a short period of photometric variability of P ∼ 1.6 d, which we associated with orbital synchronisation. The observed X-ray and Ha emissions, photometric variability, and abnormal radius and effective temperature of G 125-15 AB are indicative of strong magnetic activity, possibly because of the rapid rotation. In addition, the estimated projected physical separation between G 125-15 AB and G 125-14 of about 1200 AU ensures that WDS 19312+3607 is one of the widest systems with intermediate M-type primaries. Conclusions. G 125-15 AB is a nearby (d ≈ 26 pc), bright (J ≈ 9.6mag), active spectroscopic binary with a single proper-motion companion of the same spectral type at a wide separation. They are thus ideal targets for specific follow-ups to investigate wide and close multiplicity or stellar expansion and surface cooling because of the lower convective efficiency. © ESO 2010. Source

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