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Marchamalo, Spain

Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Bailon E.G.,Centro Apicola Regional | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Nosema ceranae has been suggested to be replacing Nosema apis in some populations of Apis mellifera honeybees. However, this replacement from one to the other is not supported when studying the distribution and prevalence of both microsporidia in professional apiaries in Spanish territories (transverse study), their seasonal pattern in experimental hives with co-infection or their prevalence at individual level (either in worker bees or drones). Nevertheless, N. ceranae has shown to present a higher prevalence at all the studied levels that could indicate any advantage for its development over N. apis or that it is more adapted to Spanish conditions. Also, both microsporidia show a different pattern of preference for its development according to the prevalence in the different Spanish bioclimatic belts studied. Finally, the fact that all analyses were carried out using an Internal PCR Control (IPC) newly developed guarantees the confidence of the data extracted from the PCR analyses. This IPC provides a useful tool for laboratory detection of honeybee pathogens. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Anderson D.L.,CSIRO | Meana A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garrido-Bailon E.,Centro Apicola Regional | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012

Although . Nosema ceranae was first isolated from the Asian honeybee (. Apis cerana) in Asia and then subsequently recognized as a widespread gut parasite of the Western honeybee (. Apis mellifera), its origins and primary host are yet to be accurately established. In this study we examined the possibility of an Asian origin for the parasite by looking for evidence of its ongoing spread out of Asia. To do this, we surveyed for the presence of . N. ceranae in . A. cerana and . A. mellifera on isolated islands of the Solomon Islands (Pacific region), most of which were inhabited with . A. mellifera that had been introduced from Australia and New Zealand at a time when . N. ceranae was not present in either country, but on which some had also recently become inhabited with invasive . A. cerana that originated from Asia with no prior history of contact with . A. mellifera infected with . N. ceranae. We also sought to verify previous findings that . N. ceranae was widespread in Asian honeybees by surveying for its presence in isolated populations of the Asian honeybees, . A. cerana, . A. koschevnikovi, . A. nigrocincta and . A. florea. We obtained evidence that . A. cerana introduced . N. ceranae to . A. mellifera in the Solomon Islands and also confirmed the widespread occurrence of the parasite in Asian honeybees, even reporting it for the first time in . A. koschevnikovi from Borneo.Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that . N. ceranae has only recently emerged from Asia to become a parasite of . A. mellifera. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Barrios L.,CTI | Martinez-Salvador A.,Tragsega | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites, needing host energy to reproduce, energetic stress may be an important factor contributing to the increased virulence observed. Through feeding experiments on caged bees, we show that both mortality and sugar syrup consumption were higher in N. ceranae-infected bees than in N. apis-infected and control bees. The mortality and sugar syrup consumption are also higher in N. apis-infected bees than in controls, but are less than in N. ceranae-infected bees. With both microsporidia, mortality and sugar syrup consumption increased in function of the increasing spore counts administered for infection. The differences in energetic requirements between both Nosema spp. confirm that their metabolic patterns are not the same, which may depend critically on host-parasite interactions and, ultimately, on host pathology. The repercussions of this increased energetic stress may even explain the changes in host behavior due to starvation, lack of thermoregulatory capacity, or higher rates of trophallaxis, which might enhance transmission and bee death. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y Tecnologia | Barrios L.,CTI | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Nosemosis caused by the microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are among the most common pathologies affecting adult honey bees. N. apis infection has been associated with a reduced lifespan of infected bees and increased winter mortality, and its negative impact on colony strength and productivity has been described in several studies. By contrast, when the effects of nosemosis type C, caused by N. ceranae infection, have been analysed at the colony level, these studies have largely focused on collapse as a response to infection without addressing the potential sub-clinical effects on colony strength and productivity. Given the spread and prevalence of N. ceranae worldwide, we set out here to characterize the sub-clinical and clinical signs of N. ceranae infection on colony strength and productivity. We evaluated the evolution of 50 honey bee colonies naturally infected by Nosema (mainly N. ceranae) over a one year period. Under our experimental conditions, N. ceranae infection was highly pathogenic for honey bee colonies, producing significant reductions in colony size, brood rearing and honey production. These deleterious effects at the colony level may affect beekeeping profitability and have serious consequences on pollination. Further research is necessary to identify possible treatments or beekeeping techniques that will limit the rapid spread of this dangerous emerging disease. © 2013 Botías et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Higes M.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Meana A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Apidologie | Year: 2010

In this review, relevant data is presented on an emerging disease of the 21th century in European countries, caused by Nosema ceranae. Within a few years after it was detected in Spain in 2005, the rest of European countries that had technical capacity to differentiate Nosema apis from N. ceranae reported its presence. In a similar way as the initial detection of Varroa in Europe, active scientific work is raising many questions due to the absence of clinical symptoms in infected colonies and a long incubation period of the pathogen. N. ceranae presents a different epidemiological pattern and pathology compared to N. apis. The disease caused by N. ceranae is now named nosemosis type C (COLOSS workshop, 2009) and is characterized by the ability to detect the disease-causing agent throughout the year. The continuous death of highly infected bees, mostly foragers, has a clear effect on colony population and productivity. Although there has been a huge effort in the last years to increase knowledge about this disease, significant research is still needed on epidemiology, pathology, prophyllaxis and treatment. © 2010 INRA/DIB-AGIB/EDP Sciences.

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