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Droogers P.,FutureWater | Immerzeel W.W.,FutureWater | Lorite I.J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Water managers and policy makers need accurate estimates of real (actual) irrigation applications for effective monitoring of irrigation and efficient irrigation management. However, this information is not readily available at field level for larger irrigation areas. An innovative inverse modeling approach was tested for a field in an irrigation scheme in southern Spain where observed actual evapotranspiration by satellites was used to assess irrigation application amounts. The actual evapotranspiration was used as the basis for an optimization procedure using the physical based SWAP model and the parameter optimization tool PEST. To evaluate the proposed techniques two steps were taken. First, actual observed evapotranspiration from remote sensing was used to optimize two parameters of the SWAP model to determine irrigation applications. Second, a forward-backward approach was applied to test the minimum overpass return time of satellites and the required accuracy of remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration for accurate assessment of irrigation applications. Results indicate that irrigation application amounts can be estimated reasonably accurately, providing data are available at an interval of 15 days or shorter and the accuracy of the signal is 90% or higher. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Donaire L.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Pedrola L.,University of Valencia | de la Rosa R.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Llave C.,CSIC - Biological Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. © 2011 Donaire et al. Source

Castillo-Llanque F.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Castillo-Llanque F.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Rapoport H.F.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2011

The development of new shoots plays a central role in the complex interactions determining vegetative and reproductive growth in woody plants. To explore this role we evaluated the new shoots in the olive tree, Olea europaea L., and the effect of fruiting on new shoot growth and subsequent flowering. Five-year-old branches served as canopy subunits in order to obtain a global, whole-tree view of new shoot number, size and morphological origin. The non-bearing trees had many more shoots than the fruit-bearing trees, and a greater number of longer shoots. In both bearing conditions, however, the majority of shoots were less than 4 cm long, with shoots of progressively longer lengths present in successively decreasing frequencies. Six major shoot types were defined on the basis of apical or lateral bud origin and of parent shoot age. On fruit-bearing trees, the new shoots originated predominantly from the shoot apex, while on non-fruiting trees, they formed mainly from axillary buds, but in both cases, they tended to develop on younger parent shoots. The previous bearing condition of the tree was the main determinant for subsequent inflorescence development, which was independent of both shoot type and length. Thus, reproductive behavior strongly affected both the amount and type of new branching, but subsequent flowering level was more influenced by previous bearing than by the potential flowering sites on new shoots. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Sillero J.C.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Emeran A.A.,Kafr El Sheikh University
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The genus Vicia includes many species of agricultural interest, such as faba bean and the various vetches that may be infected by rust, with little understanding of the specificity of these interactions. This work contributes to the clarification of host range of Uromyces viciae-fabae and Uromyces pisi, and confirms host specialization within U. viciae-fabae. The differential response of Vicia faba, Vicia sativa and Lens culinaris checks confirms the existence of specialized isolates of U. viciae-fabae. Host range of these host specialized forms of U. viciae-fabae was not so clear cut when we test other species of Vicia. The most specialized form was U. viciae-fabae ex V. faba that was able to infect profusely only faba bean (V. faba), all other Vicia species being highly resistant. Conversely, susceptibility against U. viciae-fabae ex V. sativa was very common in Vicia spp., particularly in those belonging to the subgenus Vicia, although not in V. faba. Still, susceptibility could be identified in a number of accessions of section Cracca such as Vicia cracca, Vicia monantha, Vicia sicula or Vicia villosa. Most Vicia accessions were highly resistant to U. viciae-fabae ex L. culinaris, but a number of accessions could be severely rusted, particularly in species of the subgenus Vicilla but also in some of section Peregrinae of subgenus Vicia. Similarly, most Vicia accessions were highly resistant to U. pisi but a number of accessions could be severely rusted, particularly in species of the subgenus Vicilla and in sections Hypechusa and Peregrinae of subgenus Vicia. This work also identified sources of resistance to the various rusts that can be used in rust resistance breeding. In spite of the susceptibility against various rusts, interesting levels of resistance were identified in crops and related species being based either on hypersensitive response or on reduced severity in spite of a compatible interaction making resistance breeding feasible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Carrillo E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Perez-de-Luque A.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Fondevilla S.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Ascochyta blight caused by Didymella pinodes is a serious disease of pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum) to which little resistance has been identified so far. Only incomplete resistance is available in pea germplasm although higher levels of resistance have been reported in related Pisum species. In this study we characterized histochemically the underlying resistance mechanisms in these wild species and in the pea cv. Radley, the pea cultivar with the highest level of resistance to D. pinodes. Resistance was characterized by a reduced success of colony establishment and lesion size. Histologically this was associated with higher frequency of epidermal cell death and protein cross-linking in infected epidermal cells but not with H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity. © 2012 KNPV. Source

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