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Carbonell-Bojollo R.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Ordonez-Fernandez R.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Rodriguez-Lizana A.,University of Seville
Climatic Change | Year: 2010

Organic matter (OM) is involved in the enhancement of soil quality since it acts on soil structure, nutrient storage and biological activity. Organic carbon (OC), the dominant element constituent of OM, and related soil properties are probably the most widely acknowledged indicator of soil quality. The typically Mediterranean climate of the South of Spain promotes low yields on crops and low organic carbon in soil. The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the application of alperujo, olive oil waste difficult to eliminate, on the fixation or emission of carbon on soil in an olive grove situated in Montoro (Córdoba, Spain). In the study three treatments were considered: 15 kg (A), 7.5 kg (B), 0 kg (C) of alperujo per tree and the implementation of the amendment has been made for three consecutive years. The results confirm the benefits of the amendment on the carbon content organic soil with a fixation with respect to control of 4.8 and 6.1 t ha-1 for the first year and 8.7 and 6.8 t ha-1 for the second in treatments A and B, respectively. Of the different climatic agents considered in the study, it was the temperature which had a major influence on the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere and the flow of gas presented the highest values in soils treated with the highest dose. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Donaire L.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Pedrola L.,University of Valencia | de la Rosa R.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Llave C.,CSIC - Biological Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. © 2011 Donaire et al.

Santos C.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Lorite I.J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Allen R.G.,University of Idaho | Tasumi M.,University of Miyazaki
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

Sensitivity of estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for olive fields located in Andalusia (Spain) to aerodynamic parameterization in METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration with high Resolution and Internalized Calibration) was evaluated to better understand behavior of the model and spatial and temporal distribution of ET from olives, with the ultimate aim of designing customized irrigation schedules. Previous METRIC analyses have primarily focused on the estimation of ET over fields of annual crops, with few applications to complex canopies such as olive. The model was compared against FAO 56-soil water balance-based ET estimations for non-irrigated olive fields. In the first comparisons METRIC model used a general equation for momentum roughness length (z om) based on a fixed function of height estimated from LAI (Leaf Area Index) that underestimated the olives height and therefore z om, so that ET derived as a residual of the energy balance was overestimated (RMSE = 1.12 mm/day) compared to the soil water balance derived ET. The Perrier roughness function based on LAI and tree canopy architecture for sparse trees, coupled with improved olive height estimates (employing tree density and canopy shape factors) improved estimates for z om. This approach produced closer comparisons to rainfall-constrained ET estimates based on soil water balance for rainfed olive orchards (RMSE = 0.25 mm/day). This study does not attempt to validate METRIC results; instead utilizes a comparative approach between two independent methodologies to improve olive ET estimation via remote sensing, with the strong advantage, over the soil water balance approach, of improved spatial resolution over large areas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Castillo-Llanque F.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Castillo-Llanque F.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Rapoport H.F.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2011

The development of new shoots plays a central role in the complex interactions determining vegetative and reproductive growth in woody plants. To explore this role we evaluated the new shoots in the olive tree, Olea europaea L., and the effect of fruiting on new shoot growth and subsequent flowering. Five-year-old branches served as canopy subunits in order to obtain a global, whole-tree view of new shoot number, size and morphological origin. The non-bearing trees had many more shoots than the fruit-bearing trees, and a greater number of longer shoots. In both bearing conditions, however, the majority of shoots were less than 4 cm long, with shoots of progressively longer lengths present in successively decreasing frequencies. Six major shoot types were defined on the basis of apical or lateral bud origin and of parent shoot age. On fruit-bearing trees, the new shoots originated predominantly from the shoot apex, while on non-fruiting trees, they formed mainly from axillary buds, but in both cases, they tended to develop on younger parent shoots. The previous bearing condition of the tree was the main determinant for subsequent inflorescence development, which was independent of both shoot type and length. Thus, reproductive behavior strongly affected both the amount and type of new branching, but subsequent flowering level was more influenced by previous bearing than by the potential flowering sites on new shoots. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Sillero J.C.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Emeran A.A.,Kafr El Sheikh University
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The genus Vicia includes many species of agricultural interest, such as faba bean and the various vetches that may be infected by rust, with little understanding of the specificity of these interactions. This work contributes to the clarification of host range of Uromyces viciae-fabae and Uromyces pisi, and confirms host specialization within U. viciae-fabae. The differential response of Vicia faba, Vicia sativa and Lens culinaris checks confirms the existence of specialized isolates of U. viciae-fabae. Host range of these host specialized forms of U. viciae-fabae was not so clear cut when we test other species of Vicia. The most specialized form was U. viciae-fabae ex V. faba that was able to infect profusely only faba bean (V. faba), all other Vicia species being highly resistant. Conversely, susceptibility against U. viciae-fabae ex V. sativa was very common in Vicia spp., particularly in those belonging to the subgenus Vicia, although not in V. faba. Still, susceptibility could be identified in a number of accessions of section Cracca such as Vicia cracca, Vicia monantha, Vicia sicula or Vicia villosa. Most Vicia accessions were highly resistant to U. viciae-fabae ex L. culinaris, but a number of accessions could be severely rusted, particularly in species of the subgenus Vicilla but also in some of section Peregrinae of subgenus Vicia. Similarly, most Vicia accessions were highly resistant to U. pisi but a number of accessions could be severely rusted, particularly in species of the subgenus Vicilla and in sections Hypechusa and Peregrinae of subgenus Vicia. This work also identified sources of resistance to the various rusts that can be used in rust resistance breeding. In spite of the susceptibility against various rusts, interesting levels of resistance were identified in crops and related species being based either on hypersensitive response or on reduced severity in spite of a compatible interaction making resistance breeding feasible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Carrillo E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Perez-de-Luque A.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Fondevilla S.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Ascochyta blight caused by Didymella pinodes is a serious disease of pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum) to which little resistance has been identified so far. Only incomplete resistance is available in pea germplasm although higher levels of resistance have been reported in related Pisum species. In this study we characterized histochemically the underlying resistance mechanisms in these wild species and in the pea cv. Radley, the pea cultivar with the highest level of resistance to D. pinodes. Resistance was characterized by a reduced success of colony establishment and lesion size. Histologically this was associated with higher frequency of epidermal cell death and protein cross-linking in infected epidermal cells but not with H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity. © 2012 KNPV.

Droogers P.,FutureWater | Immerzeel W.W.,FutureWater | Lorite I.J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Water managers and policy makers need accurate estimates of real (actual) irrigation applications for effective monitoring of irrigation and efficient irrigation management. However, this information is not readily available at field level for larger irrigation areas. An innovative inverse modeling approach was tested for a field in an irrigation scheme in southern Spain where observed actual evapotranspiration by satellites was used to assess irrigation application amounts. The actual evapotranspiration was used as the basis for an optimization procedure using the physical based SWAP model and the parameter optimization tool PEST. To evaluate the proposed techniques two steps were taken. First, actual observed evapotranspiration from remote sensing was used to optimize two parameters of the SWAP model to determine irrigation applications. Second, a forward-backward approach was applied to test the minimum overpass return time of satellites and the required accuracy of remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration for accurate assessment of irrigation applications. Results indicate that irrigation application amounts can be estimated reasonably accurately, providing data are available at an interval of 15 days or shorter and the accuracy of the signal is 90% or higher. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Espadafor M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Lorite I.J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Gavilan P.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Berengena J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Climate change will have important implications in the agriculture of semi-arid regions, such as Southern Spain, where the expected warmer and drier conditions might augment crop water demand. To evaluate these effects, a data set consisting of observed daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration and wind speed from eight weather stations in Andalusia and covering the period 1960-2005 was used for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo). ETo was calculated using five methods: the more complex Penman-Monteith FAO-56 (PM) equation, considered as a reference in this study, and four alternative methods with fewer data requirements, Hargreaves, Blaney-Criddle, Radiation and Priestley-Taylor. These methods were compared to PM with respect to ETo average values and trends. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to evaluate annual and seasonal trends in the main climate variables and ETo. Due to increases in air temperature and solar radiation, and decreases in relative humidity, statistically significant increases in PM-ETo were detected (up to 3.5mmyear-1). Although the Hargreaves equation provided the closest average values to PM, this method did not detect any ETo trend. On the other hand, trends found from Blaney-Criddle and Radiation ETo values were similar to those obtained from PM. In addition, after a local adjustment, these two methods gave accurate ETo average values. Therefore, Blaney-Criddle and Radiation methods have shown themselves to be the most accurate approaches for ETo determination in climate change studies, when available data provided by climate models are limited. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Padilla F.L.M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Gonzalez-Dugo M.P.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Gavilan P.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Dominguez J.,Centro Alameda del Obispo
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2011

Vegetation indices (VIs) have been traditionally used for quantitative monitoring of vegetation. Remotely sensed radiometric measurements of visible and infrared solar energy, which is reflected or emitted by plant canopies, can be used to obtain rapid, non-destructive estimates of certain canopy attributes and parameters. One parameter of special interest for water management applications, is the crop coefficient employed by the FAO-56 model to derive actual crop evapotranspiration (ET). The aim of this study was to evaluate a methodology that combines the basal crop coefficient derived from VIs with a daily soil water balance in the root zone to estimate daily evapotranspiration rates for corn and wheat crops at field scale. The ability of the model to trace water stress in these crops was also assessed. Vegetation indices were first retrieved from field hand-held radiometer measurements and then from Landsat 5 and 7 satellite images. The results of the model were validated using two independent measurement systems for ET and regular soil moisture monitoring, in order to evaluate the behavior of the soil and atmosphere components of the model. ET estimates were compared with latent heat flux measured by an eddy covariance system and with weighing lysimeter measurements. Average overestimates of daily ET of 8 and 11% were obtained for corn and wheat, respectively, with good agreement between the estimated and measured root-zone water deficit for both crops when field radiometry was employed. When the satellite sensor data replaced the field radiometry data the overestimation figures slightly changed to 9 and 6% for the same two crops. The model was also used to monitor the water stress during the 2009 growing season, detecting several periods of water stress in both crops. Some of these stresses occurred during stages like grain filling, when the water stress is know to have a negative effect on yield. This fact could explain the lower yield reached compared to local yield statistics for wheat and corn. The results showed that the model can be used to calculate the water requirements of these crops in irrigated areas and that its ability to monitor water stress deserves further research. © 2011 Author(s).

Castro P.,Centro Alameda del Obispo
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Blackberry primocane fruiting, fruiting on first-year canes, has the potential to expand blackberry production both seasonally and geographically. The incorporation of the primocane-fruiting trait into cultivars with desirable horticultural attributes is challenging due to its recessive nature and tetrasomic inheritance. Molecular marker-assisted selection has high potential to facilitate incorporation, because breeders already use morphological marker-assisted selection of seedlings without marginal cotyledonary hairs to identify progeny that will be thornless when mature. The development of a genetic linkage map with these two traits is the first step to utilizing molecular markers in breeding for thornless primocane-fruiting blackberry cultivars. A full-sib family segregating for thornlessness and primocane fruiting, from a cross between 'APF-12' and 'Arapaho', was used to construct the first genetic map of tetraploid blackberry. Segregation patterns of several dominant markers and the two phenotypic traits fit those expected uniquely with tetrasomic inheritance (e.g., 5:1, 11:1 and 35:1). Some loci showed significant double reduction frequencies, but genotypes that could have originated only from double reduction were not found. The map consists of seven linkage groups (LG) in each parent, consistent with the basic number of chromosomes (2n = 4x = 28). Naming of LG1-LG6 followed that of the recently revised system for raspberry using SSR markers in common between blackberry and raspberry, and LG7 was tentatively defined by default. The loci controlling primocane fruiting and thornlessness were not linked to each other; thornless/thorny, the S Locus, was mapped on LG4, and the primocane-/floricane-fruiting locus, named in this work the F Locus, on LG7.

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