Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo

Tarazona de la Mancha, Spain

Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo

Tarazona de la Mancha, Spain

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Memmi H.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Memmi H.,Technical University of Madrid | Couceiro J.F.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Gijon C.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Perez-Lopez D.,Technical University of Madrid
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx) and leaf conductance (g1) during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, g1 was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa). This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days). Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions. © 2016 INIA.


Perez-Lopez D.,Technical University of Madrid | Perez-Rodriguez J.M.,Research Center Agraria La Orden Valdesequera | Moreno M.M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Prieto M.H.,Research Center Agraria La Orden Valdesequera | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

The use of biosensors for irrigation scheduling is an interesting way to improve water use efficiency. Trunk diameter variations (TDV) have been studied in several species as a biosensor capable of detecting water stress. The most frequently used parameter for this purpose from TDV is maximum daily shrinkage (MDS). In the present study, MDS was studied in olive trees in two locations in Spain (Badajoz and Ciudad Real), with different cultivars in each one ('Morisca' in Badajoz and 'Cornicabra' in Ciudad Real), for three years in one location and four years in the other. In order to establish a reference baseline for both locations the relationship between vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and MDS was calculated. Four irrigation treatments were used: one control, irrigated by the FAO method, two in relation to stem water potential threshold and one based on both the trunk growth and MDS from linear variable differential transducers (LVDT). Heteroscedasticity was found in MDS data, so the transformation of the square root (SQR) of the data was necessary be done. The reference baseline with SQR of MDS vs VPD was significantly different between varieties/locations. A local calculation is thus needed to obtain an accurate reference baseline. The relationship between SQR of MDS vs stem water potential (SWP) showed a lineal fit with values higher than -1.8. MPa. In order to ensure that the relationship between SWP and MDS is not due to their relation to VPD, SWP and MDS were divided by their theoretical values in function of VPD. It was observed that the response of MDS to water stress is much weaker than SWP and in this range of SWP (higher of -1.8. MPa) variations of MDS are only due to VPD. The number of sensors necessary for precise measurement of MDS was, on average, more than thirty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Memmi H.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Memmi H.,Technical University of Madrid | Gijon M.C.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Couceiro J.F.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Perez-Lopez D.,Technical University of Madrid
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

The response of "Kerman" pistachio trees budded on three different rootstocks (Pistacia terebinthus, Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia integerrima) to regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in shallow soils was studied for 3 years. The trees were either fully irrigated (C treatment) or subjected to deficit irrigation during Stage II of fruit growth with two water stress thresholds (T1 and T2). The irrigation scheduling for fully-irrigated trees and water-stressed trees was managed by means of midday stem water potential (Ψstem) measurements. The use of direct measurements of the water status allowed estimating accurately the irrigation requirements for pistachio trees, with water reductions ranging from 46 to 205mm in fully-irrigated trees. The combination of the Ψstem use and the RDI regime saved 43-70% in T1 and 48-73% in T2 of water compared to the calculated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for fully irrigated treatment (C).Deficit irrigation during Stage II significantly reduced the vegetative growth of the trees. Yield and fruit quality were not affected by any irrigation regime, except during the first year of the study. Thus, the results indicate that full irrigation scheduling and RDI can be achieved successfully using Ψstem tool on pistachio trees growing in shallow soils. A Ψstem threshold of -1.5MPa during stage II (T1) was suggested for RDI scheduling, as it did not reduce the yield or the production value. However a Ψstem threshold of -2.0MPa (T2) resulted in a significant reduction and an extensive delay in the recovery of stomatal conductance (gl), with negative effects on long-term pistachio production.P. integerrima showed a weaker capacity of adaptation to the study conditions compared to P. atlantica and P. terebinthus, having a tendency to get more stressed and to produce a lower quality crop. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Collado-Gonzalez J.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Perez-Lopez D.,Technical University of Madrid | Memmi H.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Gijon M.C.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Carbonell-Barrachina A.A.,University Miguel Hernández | Memmi H.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Noguera-Artiaga L.,University Miguel Hernández | del Carmen Gijon-Lopez M.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: In this work, the influence of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and three different rootstocks on the quality of pistachios was evaluated by analyzing different parameters: morphological analysis, physicochemical analysis and sensory analysis. RESULTS: The results obtained in terms of the choice of rootstock revealed that Pistacia atlantica had increased production yields, nut weight, mineral content, higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a higher degree of consumer satisfaction, than the other rootstocks studied. Moreover, the results established that the application of RDI on pistachio cultivation had no significant influence on production yield, weight, size, colour, water activity or mineral composition. Furthermore, T1 treatment (stem water potential < -1.3 MPa) resulted in higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a greater level of satisfaction among international consumers. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that the application of deficit irrigation (T1) contributes to an increase in overall product quality. Furthermore, Pistacia atlantica rootstock provided better yield and quality than the other rootstocks studied. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Castellanos M.T.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Tarquis A.M.,Technical University of Madrid | Ribas F.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Cabello M.J.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

Proper management of the N applied to crops is necessary in order to increase yield, improve water use efficiency (WUE) and reduce the pollutions risks with the least economic, environmental and health costs. A field study with melon crops was conducted during 2005, 2006 and 2007 in central Spain, using 11 different amounts of N. Some environmental indexes have been proposed, to provide an essential tool for determining the groundwater pollution risks associated with common agricultural practices. These indexes are related to variation in the nitrate concentration of drinking water (Impact Index (II)) and groundwater (Environmental Impact Index (EII)). Also, the Management Efficiency (ME) was calculated, which is related to the amount of fruit produced per gram of N leached (N l ). To determine the optimum dose of N, it was also necessary to know the N mineralisation (NM). Our results show that 160 kg ha -1 of available N (N av ) produced the maximum fruit yield (FY), enhanced WUE and gave an NM of 85 kg ha -1, while the impact indexes did not exceed the fixed maximum allowable limits and ME was adequate. The proposed indexes proved to be an effective tool for determining the risk of nitrate contamination and confirmed that the optimum dose of N corresponded to the maximum FY with minimal loss of N l . © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cabello M.J.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Castellanos M.T.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Tarquis A.M.,Technical University of Madrid | Cartagena M.C.,Technical University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In order to establish a rational nitrogen (N) fertilisation and reduce groundwater contamination, a clearer understanding of the N distribution through the growing season and its dynamics inside the plant is crucial. In two successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho) was grown under field conditions to determine the uptake of N fertiliser, applied by means of fertigation at different stages of plant growth, and to follow the translocation of N in the plant using 15N-labelled N. In 2006, two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, labelled 15N fertiliser was supplied at the female-bloom stage and in the second, at the end of fruit ripening. Labelled 15N fertiliser was made from 15NH4 15NO3 (10at.% 15N) and 9.6kgNha-1 were applied in each experiment over 6 days (1.6kgNha-1d-1). In 2007, the 15N treatment consisted of applying 20.4kgNha-1 as 15NH4 15NO3 (10at.% 15N) in the middle of fruit growth, over 6 days (3.4kgNha-1d-1). In addition, 93 and 95kgNha-1 were supplied daily by fertigation as ammonium nitrate in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The results obtained in 2006 suggest that the uptake of N derived from labelled fertiliser by the above-ground parts of the plants was not affected by the time of fertiliser application. At the female-flowering and fruit-ripening stages, the N content derived from 15N-labelled fertiliser was close to 0.435gm-2 (about 45% of the N applied), while in the middle of fruit growth it was 1.45gm-2 (71% of the N applied). The N application time affected the amount of N derived from labelled fertiliser that was translocated to the fruits. When the N was supplied later, the N translocation was lower, ranging between 54% at female flowering and 32% at the end of fruit ripening. Approximately 85% of the N translocated came from the leaf when the N was applied at female flowering or in the middle of fruit growth. This value decreased to 72% when the 15N application was at the end of fruit ripening. The ammonium nitrate became available to the plant between 2 and 2.5 weeks after its application. Although the leaf N uptake varied during the crop cycle, the N absorption rate in the whole plant was linear, suggesting that the melon crop could be fertilised with constant daily N amounts until 2-3 weeks before the last harvest. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Castellanos M.T.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Tarquis A.M.,Technical University of Madrid | Ribas F.,Technical University of Madrid | Cabello M.J.,Technical University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Proper management of the N applied to crops is necessary in order to increase yield, improve water use efficiency (WUE) and reduce the pollutions risks with the least economic, environmental and health costs. A field study with melon crops was conducted during 2005, 2006 and 2007 in central Spain, using 11 different amounts of N. Some environmental indexes have been proposed, to provide an essential tool for determining the groundwater pollution risks associated with common agricultural practices. These indexes are related to variation in the nitrate concentration of drinking water (Impact Index (II)) and groundwater (Environmental Impact Index (EII)). Also, the Management Efficiency (ME) was calculated, which is related to the amount of fruit produced per gram of N leached (Nl). To determine the optimum dose of N, it was also necessary to know the N mineralisation (NM). Our results show that 160 kg ha-1 of available N (Nav) produced the maximum fruit yield (FY), enhanced WUE and gave an NM of 85 kg ha-1, while the impact indexes did not exceed the fixed maximum allowable limits and ME was adequate. The proposed indexes proved to be an effective tool for determining the risk of nitrate contamination and confirmed that the optimum dose of N corresponded to the maximum FY with minimal loss of Nl. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Castellanos M.T.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Cabello M.J.,Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo | Cartagena M.C.,Technical University of Madrid | Tarquis A.M.,Technical University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The need to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution strengthens the importance of improving the utilization efficiency of applied N to crops. This requires knowledge of crop N uptake characteristics and how fertilization management affects it. A three-year field experiment was conducted from May to September in central Spain to investigate the influence of different N rates, which ranged from 11 to 393 kg ha -1, applied through drip irrigation, on the dynamics of N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), fruit yield and quality of a 'Piel de sapo' melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho). Both N concentration and N content increased in different plant parts with the N rate. Leaves had the highest N concentration, which declined by 40-50% from 34-41 days after transplanting (DAT), while the highest N uptake rate was observed from 30-35 to 70-80 DAT, coinciding with fruit development. In each year, NUE declined with increasing N rate. With N fertilizer applications close to the optimum N rate of 90-100 kg ha -1, the fruits removed approximately 60 kg N ha -1, and the amount of N in the crop residue was about 80 kg N ha -1; this serves to replenish the organic nutrient pool in the soil and may be used by subsequent crops following mineralization.


PubMed | Hijos de Rivera SAU, Centro Agrario El Chaparrillo and University Miguel Hernández
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were product of Spain, rich in antioxidant, and crunchy; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water.

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