Centrica plc is a British multinational utility company with its headquarters in Windsor, Berkshire. Its principal activity is the supply of electricity and gas to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom and North America. It is the largest supplier of gas to domestic customers in the UK, and one of the largest suppliers of electricity, operating under the trading names Scottish Gas in Scotland and British Gas in the rest of the UK. It is also active in the exploration and production of natural gas; electricity generation; and the provision of household services including plumbing.Centrica is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £15 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 26th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Wikipedia.
Mackintosh P.W.,Centrica |
Robertson A.H.F.,University of Edinburgh
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012
The sedimentary development of the northern continental margin of Gondwana is illustrated here by a study of Devonian to Triassic facies in the Alpine-age Hadim and Bolkar nappes, which overlie the regionally autochthonous Geyik Daǧ continental platform. Successions begin with Middle-Upper Devonian terrigenous sandstones, shales and limestones deposited on a shallow-marine, continental shelf. Regional thermal subsidence, crustal extension and glacioeustatic sea level changes exerted a significant influence. Overlying Carboniferous successions are subdivided into four facies associations in both nappes. Carboniferous sediments accumulated on a shallow-marine shelf, influenced by global sea-level change during a time of southern hemisphere glaciation. Lower Carboniferous dark shales, with localised phosphatic material, probably accumulated in a productive, transgressive shelf setting. Localised volcanism in an adjacent autochthonous unit (Sultan Daǧ) is suggestive of tectonic instability during Late Tournasian-Early Visean time. Shallow-marine shelf carbonate deposition continued through the Permian, with an increase in sedimentation rate that probably reflects rift-related subsidence of the north-Gondwana margin. Further low energy, shallow-marine deposition took place during the Early-Middle Triassic, ranging from relatively proximal carbonates to more distal mudstones. The Devonian-Triassic sandstones and mudstones are terrigenous, probably derived from local basement highs and the Pan-African craton to the south. Thickness variations suggest the Tauride platform segmented into a several differentially subsiding sub-basins. There was a profound change to coarser grained, shallow-marine to alluvial sedimentation during Triassic-earliest Jurassic related to the evolution of the Neotethyan ocean to the north. The overall succession was, therefore, controlled by interplay of sea level change and tectonics. © 2011.
LONDON (Reuters) - SSE, one of Britain's big six power companies, will cut its domestic gas prices by an average of 5.3 percent from March 29, the company said on Thursday as it announced it had lost 300,000 customers in nine months. The move follows a similar cut from rival E.ON, which last week announced a 5.1 percent reduction in its gas prices from Feb. 1, piling pressure on others to follow suit. "This latest reduction will save a typical household gas customer on our standard tariff 32 pounds a year compared with existing prices," the company said. Wholesale gas prices are trading around their lowest levels since 2009 because of a milder than usual winter, an oversupplied market and pressure from falling commodity prices. SSE also said in a trading update on Thursday that customer numbers had fallen to 8.28 million in the nine months to Dec. 31, down from 8.58 million at the end of March. Despite the loss of customers, the utility stuck to its full-year earnings and dividend targets. Britain's biggest energy suppliers, which also include Iberdrola's Scottish Power, Centrica, RWE npower and EDF Energy, are facing a shake-up from the outcome of a competition watchdog investigation set to conclude in June. "SSE has taken a step in the right direction and I urge other suppliers to follow suit," Britain's Energy and Climate Change Secretary Amber Rudd said in a statement.
News Article | October 27, 2015
LONDON Britain's competition watchdog on Tuesday launched a review of the storage capacity that the Rough gas facility operated by Centrica (CNA.L) is obliged to sell after problems at the site. The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) review started on Tuesday follows a request from Centrica to ensure that Britain's largest gas storage site is not obliged to sell more storage than it can physically deliver. Centrica said that testing at the site will last until at least the end of the summer 2016 injection season, between September and December, to determine whether a storage limit of between 29 terawatt-hours (TWh) and 32 TWh could be lifted.
Apple recently made headlines when it established a subsidiary called Apple Energy and filed for authorization to sell capacity, energy and ancillary services in wholesale energy markets nationwide. It will be some time before we see Apple participate in many of these markets, since Apple’s application currently covers only its renewable energy projects in California and Nevada, as well as one under construction in Arizona. But the fact that a consumer technology company has formed an energy subsidiary reflects the extent to which large corporations are taking an active approach to energy management. As Apple and other corporations pursue new opportunities in energy management, their objectives generally include some combination of cost management, sustainability, predictable costs and resiliency. Though Apple is the most recent tech company to establish an energy subsidiary, two of its competitors were there first. Google established Google Energy at the end of 2009, and Amazon established Amazon Energy in mid-2015. These subsidiaries were formed to “identify and develop opportunities to manage the cost of energy,” a complex endeavor for corporations with a global footprint. At a macro level, regional variation in energy regulations and rates complicates a corporate-wide approach to energy procurement. And at a micro level, costs are closely linked to the overall energy consumption of an individual facility and to when the facility uses energy throughout the day. The financial opportunity available goes beyond simply reducing costs. The authorization that Apple seeks -- and that Google and Amazon already have -- to sell electricity to wholesale customers would permit it to earn market revenues from the renewable energy projects it has invested in. Even without investing in onsite or offsite renewable resources, commercial and industrial (C&I) customers can earn revenues by participating in demand response, shifting the time of their electricity consumption in exchange for payments from a utility or energy service provider. There are clear economic reasons behind the choices that Google, Amazon and Apple have made to better manage the cost of energy. Equally important to their overall energy strategies, however, are their sustainability goals. Apple, Google and Amazon Web Services (AWS) all have long-term goals of generating or purchasing an amount of renewable energy equivalent to the amount of energy they consume overall in their stores, offices and data centers. Achieving aggressive sustainability goals isn’t possible with the types of energy projects that companies typically pursue. Standard lighting retrofits and onsite solar installations can effectively address significant shares of a facility’s overall energy consumption, but a more comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency and renewable energy options is necessary to meet corporate-wide goals as high as 100 percent renewable energy. With this in mind, Google has implemented measures to make its data centers 50 percent more efficient than a typical data center. This enables the company to right-size its renewable energy investments and avoid buying or generating electricity that it could cost-effectively avoid consuming in the first place. As corporations diversify the sources of their energy, incorporating large-scale solar and wind resources in their procurement plans, they also seek to make energy spending more predictable. While power-purchase agreements give customers visibility into the price of solar or wind power over the life of a 10- to 25-year contract, the revenue that customers can earn from reselling the electricity into wholesale markets is less predictable. A recent contract highlights the priority that AWS in particular has placed on predictable energy costs. AWS’ data centers in Virginia were paying a relatively fixed rate for energy, while the company’s renewable energy projects were earning variable revenues in the wholesale energy market. This volatility led AWS to negotiate a new rate with its utility, Dominion Virginia Power. The new rate ensures that AWS will pay a lower bill to DVP when wholesale energy market revenues are low and pay a higher bill when market revenues are higher -- thereby keeping overall energy cash flow more consistent for AWS. The destructive storms of the past several years have led both the public and private sector to invest in more resilient infrastructure, but resiliency is not a new concern for Google, Amazon and Apple. To ensure that data centers can continue to operate during power outages, backup generators that run on diesel and gas are common. Hospitals, food storage facilities and laboratories, similarly concerned with the highest level of resiliency, have also traditionally relied on such generators. Today, rapidly falling battery prices enable a new and potentially cleaner way of maintaining an uninterrupted supply of power. This is one reason Microsoft is exploring the potential of battery technology at its data centers. The complexity of meeting corporate energy objectives presents an opportunity for energy service providers. Their core value proposition is to simplify and streamline the procurement of energy and the selection, financing, installation and operation of energy technologies. Incumbents like Ecova, EnerNOC, GE, Schneider Electric, and Siemens have been active in the C&I market for years, but are beginning to incorporate onsite energy generation and storage with their core energy management offerings. Meanwhile, some of the largest energy companies in the world -- including Centrica, Duke Energy and Edison International -- have made acquisitions that position them to compete directly with the incumbent providers. As Google, Amazon, Apple and other leading corporations scale up their energy management initiatives, a growing number of service providers is betting that many more corporations are soon to follow. To find out more about the GTM Research report The New C&I Energy Management Landscape: Integrating Procurement, Efficiency, Generation & Storage, please click here.
News Article | January 27, 2016
Chris Cox has been named head of exploration and production for Centrica PLC. Cox has worked for BG Group, Chevron Corp., and Amerada Hess in North Sea operating roles.