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Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Benato L.,University of Edinburgh | Rice C.J.,46 School Road | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | McKeown S.,Sheikh Butti Maktoums Wildlife Center | Bailey T.A.,Dubai Falcon Hospital
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Analysis of vitamins and trace elements has gained importance in avian medicine in recent years. It has become evident that interpretation should be based on species-specific reference intervals due to differences in intervals between species. This study was performed to evaluate the blood concentrations of vitamins A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), C (ascorbic acid), and E (α-tocopherol) and trace elements copper, selenium, and zinc for greater flamingos (Phoeniconaias (Phoenicopterus) rubeus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). Reference intervals of vitamins and trace elements are presented for clinically healthy flamingos. Thirty-six clinically healthy greater flamingos, divided into male and female groups, and 14 healthy lesser flamingos were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the vitamin and trace element concentrations between male and female greater flamingos, but there was a statistically significant difference between greater flamingos and lesser flamingos for ascorbic acid, copper, and selenium. Blood concentration of ascorbic acid was greater (P < 0.001) in lesser flamingos (122.66 ± 31.53 μM) than in male and female greater flamingos (40.53 ± 13.83 and 30.44 ± 11.43 μM, respectively). Blood concentrations of copper and selenium were greater (P < 0.001) in greater flamingos (copper: 5.57 ± 1.3 μM for males, 5.65 ± 1.53 μM for females; selenium: 2.74 ± 0.43 μM for males, 2.54 ± 0.7 μM for females) than lesser flamingos (copper: 2.45 ± 1.96 μM; selenium: 0.45 ± 0.29 μM). The mean ± SD of vitamins A, B1, and E and zinc are reported as entire group (male and female greater flamingos and lesser flamingos): vitamin A, 1.54 ± 0.45 μM; thiamine, 0.49 ± 0.07 μM; vitamin E, 31 ± 9.8 μmol/L; and zinc, 29.52 ± 6.49 μM. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Alexandersen S.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Kobinger G.P.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Soule G.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2014 Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food and Minister of Health. Source

Fleetwood F.,Albanova University Center | Devoogdt N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Pellis M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | And 3 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Combinatorial protein engineering for selection of proteins with novel functions, such as enzymes and affinity reagents, is an important tool in biotechnology, drug discovery, and other biochemical fields. Bacterial display is an emerging technology for isolation of new affinity proteins from such combinatorial libraries. Cells have certain properties that are attractive for directed evolution purposes, in particular the option to use quantitative flow-cytometric cell sorting for selection of binders. Here, an immune library of around 107 camelid single-domain antibody fragments (Nanobodies) was displayed on both the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus and on phage. As demonstrated for the first time, the antibody repertoire was found to be well expressed on the bacterial surface and flow-cytometric sorting yielded a number of Nanobodies with subnanomolar affinity for the target protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP). Interestingly, the staphylococcal output repertoire and the binders from the phage display selection contained two slightly different sets of clones, containing both unique as well as several similar variants. All of the Nanobodies from the staphylococcal selection were also shown to enhance the fluorescence of GFP upon binding, potentially due to the fluorescence-based sorting principle. Our study highlights the impact of the chosen display technology on the variety of selected binders and thus the value of having alternative methods available, and demonstrates in addition that the staphylococcal system is suitable for generation of high-affinity antibody fragments. © 2012 Springer Basel. Source

Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Liu C.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Baskar V.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Guerineche Z.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | And 6 more authors.
Avian Biology Research

Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected individually from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Houbara bustard gonadal cells containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) were injected into the blood stream of White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara bustard PGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara bustard species-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara bustard cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germ line chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara bustard eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara bustard and the other was female but died before hatching. Source

Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Kreutzer R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Kreutzer M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Wohlsein P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Epidemiology and Infection

Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

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