Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Dubai, United Arab Emirates

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Benato L.,University of Edinburgh | Rice C.J.,46 School Road | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | McKeown S.,Sheikh Butti Maktoums Wildlife Center | Bailey T.A.,Dubai Falcon Hospital
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Analysis of vitamins and trace elements has gained importance in avian medicine in recent years. It has become evident that interpretation should be based on species-specific reference intervals due to differences in intervals between species. This study was performed to evaluate the blood concentrations of vitamins A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), C (ascorbic acid), and E (α-tocopherol) and trace elements copper, selenium, and zinc for greater flamingos (Phoeniconaias (Phoenicopterus) rubeus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). Reference intervals of vitamins and trace elements are presented for clinically healthy flamingos. Thirty-six clinically healthy greater flamingos, divided into male and female groups, and 14 healthy lesser flamingos were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the vitamin and trace element concentrations between male and female greater flamingos, but there was a statistically significant difference between greater flamingos and lesser flamingos for ascorbic acid, copper, and selenium. Blood concentration of ascorbic acid was greater (P < 0.001) in lesser flamingos (122.66 ± 31.53 μM) than in male and female greater flamingos (40.53 ± 13.83 and 30.44 ± 11.43 μM, respectively). Blood concentrations of copper and selenium were greater (P < 0.001) in greater flamingos (copper: 5.57 ± 1.3 μM for males, 5.65 ± 1.53 μM for females; selenium: 2.74 ± 0.43 μM for males, 2.54 ± 0.7 μM for females) than lesser flamingos (copper: 2.45 ± 1.96 μM; selenium: 0.45 ± 0.29 μM). The mean ± SD of vitamins A, B1, and E and zinc are reported as entire group (male and female greater flamingos and lesser flamingos): vitamin A, 1.54 ± 0.45 μM; thiamine, 0.49 ± 0.07 μM; vitamin E, 31 ± 9.8 μmol/L; and zinc, 29.52 ± 6.49 μM. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Alexandersen S.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Kobinger G.P.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Soule G.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2014

We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2014 Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food and Minister of Health.


Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Kreutzer R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Kreutzer M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Wohlsein P.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Johnson B.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Dietrich F.,Berlin Technical University of Applied Sciences | Petrovsky N.,Flinders University | Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2015

Although camelids are an important domestic species with more than 25 million members, little is known about vaccine adjuvant efficacy, safety and mechanism of action in this species. This presents a major problem for design of effective camelid vaccines. This is of more than theoretical interest given the recent emergence of. camels as vectors of transmission to humans of lethal viral diseases such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. Hence availability of well-validated camelid vaccine adjuvants may be important not just for vaccines to prevent diseases of camels but also to block their ability to transmit disease to humans. In this study, we used dromedaries to test the safety and efficacy of four different adjuvant formulations (Advax™ HCXL, Advax AF-1, Advax AF-2 or alum) together with four different antigen formulations (B. mallei, C. pseudotuberculosis, C. perfringens, Rhinovirus) administered by subcutaneous injection in the neck region of adult animals. All the Advax delta inulin-based adjuvants and the alum adjuvant were well tolerated, with no severe lesions such as the draining granulomas that are caused by oil emulsion adjuvants. There was no trend for increased vaccine reactogenicity in camels that had existing immunity to the vaccine antigens. Overall, the vaccines had modest immunogenicity in these adult animals indicating the need for further research to identify the optimal adjuvant formulation, dose and immunisation route for camelid vaccines.


PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products EICMP
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2016

Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs.


Liu C.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Zu J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Baskar V.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Chang I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The effect of interspecific egg white on the development of chicken embryos was investigated in a surrogate eggshell culture system. Egg yolks were separated from fertile White Leghorn chicken eggs and cultured in different egg whites from turkey (group TK), guineafowl (group GF), and duck (group DK), and chicken (group CK) was used as control. The viability of chicken embryos in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK after 3 d culture in system II was 98.3, 90.2, 96.1, and 91.1%. The whole contents (egg yolk and surrogate egg white) were further transferred into an eggshell from a 1.5 times heavier chicken egg with air space (system III), and incubated for further 16 d, before moving them to a hatcher. No significant difference between the 4 groups was found in their viabilities, which ranged between 72.9 and 81.3%, until 14 d postincubation (P > 0.05). After 21 d, the viability decreased to 60.4, 57.4, 50.0, and 27.7% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK. The viability in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Weight loss in system III was approximately 12% in all the 4 groups without significant difference (P > 0.05). Hatchability of the chicken embryo was 60.4, 55.3, 47.9, and 19.1% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK, respectively, and that in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the other groups (P > 0.05). These results show that chicken embryos can develop to hatch in duck, guineafowl, and turkey egg whites. However, the hatchability decreases according to the phylogenetic distance. The present study will provide a tool for manipulation of avian embryos and eventual conservation of endangered wild birds. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Wernery D.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Johnson B.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Jose Sh.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Wernery R.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

Camel milk powder was investigated by organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological tests over a period of 12 months. The pasteurised camel milk powder with no added stabilisers or additives were kept in aluminium tins and sachets and stored at refrigeration (2 - 8°C) and at room temperature (20 - 22°C). The contents were investigated monthly. The vitamin C content decreased in powders stored at room temperature. The moisture increased and powders turned rancid after 6 to 7 months storage at room temperature. However, there was no significant reduction in vitamin C in powders stored at refrigeration. Moisture remained below 4% and powders started loosing fresh taste, but did not become rancid after 8 months storage under refrigeration. There was neither significant change in TPC, Ca, Mg, P, Fe nor in TP, ALP, GGT and total fat. It was shown in the study that keeping pasteurised camel milk powder at room temperature has a deteriorative effect on the product after 6 to 7 months.


Liu C.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Baskar V.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | Guerineche Z.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | And 2 more authors.
Avian Biology Research | Year: 2013

The viability and hatchability of Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) embryos were investigated in a surrogate (chicken) albumen and eggshell system. Egg yolk including embryos were separated from freshly laid Houbara bustard eggs, and cultured in albumen from chicken and Houbara, respectively. The viability of Houbara embryos after day 4 in the same sized chicken eggshell was 76.9% and 61.1% in chicken and Houbara albumen, respectively. The entire content (egg yolk with embryo and the surrogate albumen) were then transferred on day 4 into an eggshell of a larger double yolk chicken egg, and incubated for a further 19 days. On day 14, the viability of Houbara embryo in the surrogate Houbara and chicken albumen were 27.3%, and 57.1%, respectively. Two Houbara chicks hatched successfully from the chicken albumen (7.7%), while one hatched from the Houbara albumen (5.6%). The results showed that Houbara embryo could develop to hatching in chicken albumen and eggshell. This technology will provide a tool to hatch damaged eggs as well as soft-shelled egg of endangered wild birds.


Fleetwood F.,Albanova University Center | Devoogdt N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Pellis M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL | And 3 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Combinatorial protein engineering for selection of proteins with novel functions, such as enzymes and affinity reagents, is an important tool in biotechnology, drug discovery, and other biochemical fields. Bacterial display is an emerging technology for isolation of new affinity proteins from such combinatorial libraries. Cells have certain properties that are attractive for directed evolution purposes, in particular the option to use quantitative flow-cytometric cell sorting for selection of binders. Here, an immune library of around 107 camelid single-domain antibody fragments (Nanobodies) was displayed on both the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus and on phage. As demonstrated for the first time, the antibody repertoire was found to be well expressed on the bacterial surface and flow-cytometric sorting yielded a number of Nanobodies with subnanomolar affinity for the target protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP). Interestingly, the staphylococcal output repertoire and the binders from the phage display selection contained two slightly different sets of clones, containing both unique as well as several similar variants. All of the Nanobodies from the staphylococcal selection were also shown to enhance the fluorescence of GFP upon binding, potentially due to the fluorescence-based sorting principle. Our study highlights the impact of the chosen display technology on the variety of selected binders and thus the value of having alternative methods available, and demonstrates in addition that the staphylococcal system is suitable for generation of high-affinity antibody fragments. © 2012 Springer Basel.


PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Laboratory CVRL
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2011

Rhodococcus (R). equi, a recognized pathogen in horses, is emerging as a human opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromized people. It affects also New World camelids, but there are no reports of R. equi infection in Old World camelids yet. Four cases of disseminated R. equi infection in adult breeding dromedaries occurred at one camel farm near Dubai within 16 months of each other. At necropsy the lungs were diffusely consolidated with large caseous areas. Histology revealed severe suppurative to necrotising pneumonia with multiple encapsulated abscesses. Immunohistochemistry enabled the detection of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) of R. equi in the lung sections. High numbers of R. equi were isolated from the lung lesions as well as from liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, indicative of septicaemia. The isolated strains were PCR-positive for the specific virulence plasmid (VapA-Gen) of R. equi, indicating virulent strains and containing an 85-kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of disseminated R. equi infection in Old World camelids. Since adult camels in general do not suffer from bacterial caused pneumonia (except tuberculosis), this is a new emerging disease for camels.

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