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Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

Very little is known about mycoplasma infections in camelids and therefore comprehensive research is needed. M. haemolamae which was formerly known as Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon can cause severe disease in NWCs with anaemia, weight loss and depression. The newly classified bacterial species can also cause intrauterine infection of the foetus. Only PCR methods can distinguish between M. haemolamae and A. marginale infections. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors. So far M. haemolamae has not been detected in OWCs but research is ongoing at CVRL to test dromedaries which suffer from unidentified anaemia and weight loss. Several classical mycoplasmas have been isolated from dromedaries from different organs exhibiting lesions but it is not clear if these mycoplasmas were solely responsible for these changes. In NWCs no classical mycoplasmas have been isolated so far but antibodies to different known bovine and caprine strains have been reported. In a recent respiratory disease outbreak in Iran which occurred during a cold spell in dromedaries, antibodies against Adenovirus and BRSV were found in connection with 4 different unidentified mycoplasmas. From these investigations it was hypothesised that classical mycoplasmas may disease camelids in connection with concurrent viral diseases. Source

Five out of ten ocellated skinks (Chalcides ocellatus) examined in Dubai between 2007 and 2010 were infected with cestodes of the genus Oochoristica. Out of the 36 collected tapeworms seven specimens were used to describe a new species. Oochoristica chalcidesi n. sp. belongs to the group of species with 25 to 35 testes arranged in two clusters. The lobes of the ovary are subdivided into 4-5 lobules in a similar way as O. ubelakeri described from Agama atra in Namibia. Both species differ in the presence of a neck, a lower number of mature segments in O. chalcidesi n. sp. and a different position of the cirrus pouch in relation to the ovary, as well as in the distribution of uterine capsulae in gravid segments. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. © 2014, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Hospital. All rights reserved. Source

Schuster R.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2010

The discovery history of opisthorchiid flukes dates back more than 200 years. The life cycle of these liver flukes includes prosobranch snails as the first and a big variety of freshwater fish as the second intermediate hosts. Opisthorchis felineus, O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are species of major medical importance, while sporadic cases of human infection with other representatives of this family are also documented in the literature. There are estimations that 17 million people are infected and more than 350 million people are at risk, mainly in Asian countries. Although opisthorchiid flukes live in the bile ducts of the liver and in the gall bladder, they can affect surrounding liver tissue and even other organs. They are also known to induce the production of autoantibodies as well as allergic reactions. However, the main medical significance is their role in the formation of malignant tumors. Since the clinical symptoms are not specific, a diagnosis must be confirmed by parasitological examination or the detection of antibodies. Apart from coproscopical methods, there are more recent and highly specific assays available, like the detection of coproantigen or the detection of DNA. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of opisthorchiidosis. In order to prevent infection, consumption of raw flesh of freshwater fish must be avoided. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Wernsry U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2014

Camel brucellosis has been diagnosed in all camel-rearing countries except Australia. In many countries the infection is on the rise in Old World camels (OWCs) due to the uncontrolled trade of live animals. Knowledge of camelid brucellosis has increased over the last decade through field investigations, experimental infection trials and comprehensive laboratory testing. Infection with Brucella melitensis is frequent in OWCs and rare with B. abortus. NewWorld Camels rarely contract brucellosis. In East African countries the seroprevalence of brucellosis can reach 40% (herd level) and depends on the management system. The highest incidence is found when camels are kept together with infected small ruminants. Only a combination of serological methods can detect all serological reactors. Culturing the pathogen is still the preferred test method, although several assays based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed. Source

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