Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

Dubai, United Arab Emirates
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Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

Corynebacteria are pyogenic bacteria causing a variety of suppurative diseases. The virulence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is attributed to the haemolytic toxin which possesses phospholipase activity and to cell wall lipids. The pathogen causes pseudotuberculosis or lymphadenitis in sheep, goats and camelids, but it is rare in other animal species. The infection is spread via ingestion, inhalation or wounds, and pathognomic for the disease are cold, closed painless abscesses up to the size of a lemon or orange in external lymph nodes especially at the base of the neck and in prescapular lymph nodes. Corynebacteria are sensitive to several antibiotics but the abscess prevents the medication from reaching the bacteria. It is therefore recommended to perform both, surgical and antibiotic treatment. Commercial vaccines are available for sheep and goats, but have not been evaluated for camelids. These vaccines do not provide complete protection against the development of abscesses but a significant reduction in the number of abscesses. After mange Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) remains the most important skin disease of camelids.


Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

Very little is known about mycoplasma infections in camelids and therefore comprehensive research is needed. M. haemolamae which was formerly known as Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon can cause severe disease in NWCs with anaemia, weight loss and depression. The newly classified bacterial species can also cause intrauterine infection of the foetus. Only PCR methods can distinguish between M. haemolamae and A. marginale infections. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors. So far M. haemolamae has not been detected in OWCs but research is ongoing at CVRL to test dromedaries which suffer from unidentified anaemia and weight loss. Several classical mycoplasmas have been isolated from dromedaries from different organs exhibiting lesions but it is not clear if these mycoplasmas were solely responsible for these changes. In NWCs no classical mycoplasmas have been isolated so far but antibodies to different known bovine and caprine strains have been reported. In a recent respiratory disease outbreak in Iran which occurred during a cold spell in dromedaries, antibodies against Adenovirus and BRSV were found in connection with 4 different unidentified mycoplasmas. From these investigations it was hypothesised that classical mycoplasmas may disease camelids in connection with concurrent viral diseases.


Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. © 2014, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Hospital. All rights reserved.


Five out of ten ocellated skinks (Chalcides ocellatus) examined in Dubai between 2007 and 2010 were infected with cestodes of the genus Oochoristica. Out of the 36 collected tapeworms seven specimens were used to describe a new species. Oochoristica chalcidesi n. sp. belongs to the group of species with 25 to 35 testes arranged in two clusters. The lobes of the ovary are subdivided into 4-5 lobules in a similar way as O. ubelakeri described from Agama atra in Namibia. Both species differ in the presence of a neck, a lower number of mature segments in O. chalcidesi n. sp. and a different position of the cirrus pouch in relation to the ovary, as well as in the distribution of uterine capsulae in gravid segments. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Wernsry U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2014

Camel brucellosis has been diagnosed in all camel-rearing countries except Australia. In many countries the infection is on the rise in Old World camels (OWCs) due to the uncontrolled trade of live animals. Knowledge of camelid brucellosis has increased over the last decade through field investigations, experimental infection trials and comprehensive laboratory testing. Infection with Brucella melitensis is frequent in OWCs and rare with B. abortus. NewWorld Camels rarely contract brucellosis. In East African countries the seroprevalence of brucellosis can reach 40% (herd level) and depends on the management system. The highest incidence is found when camels are kept together with infected small ruminants. Only a combination of serological methods can detect all serological reactors. Culturing the pathogen is still the preferred test method, although several assays based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed.


Schuster R.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Philophthalmus aweerensis, a new eye fluke species, was discovered in the conjunctival cavities of a rhea in the UAE. This fluke was described and differentiated from other eye flukes that had been found in birds in the Middle East such as Philophthalmus palpebrarum, Philophthalmus nocturnus, Philophthalmus gralli, Philophthalmus lucipetus, Philophthalmus distomatosa, and Philophthalmus hegeneri. The new species lacks spination and is characterized by a long cirrus pouch extending behind the caudal margin of the acetabulum, long vitellaria of tubular type reaching the midbody, and a genital opening situated anteriorly to the bifurcation of the caeca. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Schuster R.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2010

The discovery history of opisthorchiid flukes dates back more than 200 years. The life cycle of these liver flukes includes prosobranch snails as the first and a big variety of freshwater fish as the second intermediate hosts. Opisthorchis felineus, O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are species of major medical importance, while sporadic cases of human infection with other representatives of this family are also documented in the literature. There are estimations that 17 million people are infected and more than 350 million people are at risk, mainly in Asian countries. Although opisthorchiid flukes live in the bile ducts of the liver and in the gall bladder, they can affect surrounding liver tissue and even other organs. They are also known to induce the production of autoantibodies as well as allergic reactions. However, the main medical significance is their role in the formation of malignant tumors. Since the clinical symptoms are not specific, a diagnosis must be confirmed by parasitological examination or the detection of antibodies. Apart from coproscopical methods, there are more recent and highly specific assays available, like the detection of coproantigen or the detection of DNA. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of opisthorchiidosis. In order to prevent infection, consumption of raw flesh of freshwater fish must be avoided. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Schuster R.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Aldhoun J.A.,Natural History Museum in London | O'Donovan D.,Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Center
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Delicate filamentous schistosomatids detected in the intestinal veins of experimentally infected chickens are here described as a new parasite species, Gigantobilharzia melanoidis, and details of its life cycle are given. It is the first complete description of a schistosome species that uses Melanoides tuberculata as an intermediate host. Apharyngeate ocellate brevifurcate cercariae found in 65 out of 950 M. tuberculata collected in a pond in Al Aweer, United Arab Emirates were used as infection material. The new species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: caecal reunion in males situated anterior to seminal vesicle, a very short gynecophoric canal (gynecophoric canal length/body length ratio lower than 0.05) supported by 12-14 thickened bands. Cercariae of G. melanoidis can be distinguished from other Gigantobilharzia cercariae described in the literature based on the combination of these characters: flame cell formula 2[3 + 3 + (1)] = 14 and relatively longer tail stem in relation to body (tail stem length/body length ratio = 2). Under laboratory conditions at a temperature between 24 and 26 C, M. tuberculata started to shed cercariae 7 weeks after exposure to miracidia. The prepatent period of G. melanoidis in experimentally infected chicken lasted between 43 and 49 days. The parasite inhabits the blood vessels mainly of the small intestine. Sections of adult worms and eggs were also found in histocuts of parenchymatous organs. Results of phylogenetic analysis corroborated that G. melanoidis is a distinct species; however, they also confirmed that the genus Gigantobilharzia is in need of revision and in future might be split into several genera. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Abdelrahman S.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2011

The activity of some medicinal plants used in Sudan was studied in rats experimentally infected with T. evansi. Tinospora bakis, Argemone maxicana and Aristolachia bracteolata were evaluated for in vivo activity against Trypanosoma evansi infectin in rats. The three plants tested in the preset study were selected on the basis of information from traditional healers on their curative effect in the treatment of malaria or sleeping sickness. The plant extracts were administered orally at dose rates of 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 BW for both methanolic and chloroformic extracts. The result was compared to Cymelarsan which was given at the recommended dose rate of 2.5 mg kg-1 BW subcutaneously. A daily program for the parsitaemia for all methanolic and chloroformic extracts in infected or uninfected rats were followed for 30 days after treatment. Blood was collected every week for analysis. Tinospora bakis extract was found to be effective in cleaning the parasite for a considerable time and extending life-spam of the treated rats. Argemone maxicana on the other hand was found to be more effective in cleaning or reducing the parasitaemia for both methanolic and chloroformic extract. Aristolachia bracteolate chloroformic extract gave a very good trypanocidal effect where clearance of the parasite was 100%. Whereas the methanolic extract gave a limited trypanocidal effect. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Wernery U.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2012

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains the most important animal disease. The FMD virus is highly contagious and occurs almost exclusively among clovenhoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, Bactrian camels and swine. Old World camels (OWCs) and New World camels (NWCs) inhabit FMD-endemic countries in South America, North and East Africa, and the Middle and Far East. Results of experimental infection of OWCs with the virus, and several clinical observations from the field over a century, confirm that the two closely related camel species of Bactrian and dromedary camels possess noticeably different susceptibilities to FMD. It is now certain that Bactrian camels can contract the disease. In contrast, dromedaries are not susceptible to FMD and do not transmit infection, even when in close contact with susceptible animals. The susceptibility of NWCs to the FMD virus has been demonstrated in the field and in experimental infection trials. However, these animals are not very susceptible and do not represent a serious risk in transmitting FMD to susceptible animal species.

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