Central Veterinary Research Laboratories

Khartoum, Sudan

Central Veterinary Research Laboratories

Khartoum, Sudan
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Kwiatek O.,Control of Exotic and Emerging Animal Diseases | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000-2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa.

El-Hussein A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Daboura A.,Animal Health Administration
Veterinary World | Year: 2012

The economic impact of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease that took place during 2002 was assessed in dairy farms of Khartoum state, Sudan. Atotal of 11 farms (8 cooperative and 3 privately owned) of mostly crossbred Friesian X indigenous cattle were investigated. The total number of the animals in these farms were 1160 of which 715 were adult and 445 were calves. The statistical analysis was carried out using t student test. The costs of the outbreak were assessed in terms of losses in milk production, costs of drugs used to alleviate the symptoms, and death of affected animals. The overall cost to the dairy farmers in the state was estimated USD 1 771 924 with the loss in milk production constituting the main component in this cost.

ELGhali A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Hassan S.M.,University of Khartoum
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2010

Engorged Hyalomma dromedarii females were placed for development in shade and sun (open non-shaded site) in April, August and December for two successive years. Engorged nymphs were also placed at the same sites in January, March, May, June, July and August. Preoviposition periods ranged between 9.8 and 11.7 days in the shade but longer in the sun in December (14.7 days). Egg production index was higher in August (0.72) than in April and December (0.46 and 0.39, respectively) in shade and in August compared to December in the sun (0.65 and 0.29, respectively). In shade and in sun, the prehatching periods were longer in December (50.7 and 48.2 days) than in April and August (25.6 and 29.0 days). Percentage hatchability ranged between 82 to 94.1% and 56.2 and 58.9% in the shade and sun, respectively. Number of eggs laid and eggs hatched were positively correlated with females' engorgement weights. There were high mortality rates of females in the sun and most of the eggs desiccated. Slight increased ambient and soil temperatures increased egg production, shortened preoviposition periods and decreased hatchability while increased humidity shortened preoviposition and prehatching periods and increased hatchability.Nymphal-adult moulting periods were long in January (20.7 days in the shade and 14.4 days in the sun) and short in August in the shade (7.8 days) while they were only 6 days in May and June in the sun. High numbers moulted in all months in the shade (ranges 23.3-29.5 nymphs). The mean mortality of engorged nymphs in the shade was very low. However, in the sun mortality was high (12.9-30 nymphs). Premoulting periods were negatively correlated with ambient temperature but positively correlated with humidity. In the shade, mean number of nymphs moulting increased with increased mean ambient temperature, humidity and rainfall. © 2010.

ELGhali A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Hassan S.M.,University of Khartoum
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2010

Flat larvae and adult Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) were fed on camels' ears. Feeding periods and drop-off rhythms of engorged females and nymphs together with engorgement weights of females were recorded. Newly hatched larvae and newly moulted adults were released in nylon mesh bags at the base of a tree. Their survival periods were seasonally monitored. H. dromedarii behaved exclusively as two-host ticks under field conditions. Larval-nymphal feeding periods ranged between 16 and 27 days according to the season, whereas females fed for 6-9 days. The peak drop-off rhythms of nymphs and females occurred between 18:00 and 20:00. h. Engorgement weights of females at dropping ranged between 0.84. g on day 6 and 0.60. g on day 9 of attachment. Survival duration of the flat adults showed that 18.4%, 5.3% and 4.8% of ticks released in January, April and July, respectively, survived for 1 month. A very few number of ticks survived for extra periods of 3 months, 2 months and 1 month in January, April and July, respectively. Increased air temperature and lower humidity decreased survival duration. Larvae released in February, May, June and August died within 1 week, although they survived under laboratory conditions (35 °C and 49-90% Relative Humidity (RH) for 49-60 days. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Hassan W.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Khair S.A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Mochotlhoane B.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | Abolnik C.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Virus Genes | Year: 2010

Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia into parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of isolates obtained from outbreaks of ND in Sudan and found that all contemporary strains isolated between 2003 and 2006 were of genotype 5d, containing the virulent fusion protein cleavage site (F0) motif 112RRQKRF117. Introduction via a Middle Eastern trade partner is likely to be the source of infection since phylogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of introduction from western and southern Africa. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Elfahal A.M.,Central Laboratory | Zakia A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | El-Hussien A.M.,Central Laboratory
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010

Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection of goats has a worldwide distribution and trade in live animals is considered the main reason for the widespread of the disease. The disease has not been previously recognized in the Sudan neither by serological nor molecular biological methods. The objective of this study was to investigate CAEV infection among the imported purebred goats and their crossbred lines in the Sudan, generate information about the disease and to establish methods for diagnosis of CAEV infections, as a base line for further epidemiological and virological studies. In this study, samples (273 serum and 173 whole blood) were collected from goats in different areas of Khartoum state, Sudan. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to detect CAEV-specific antibodies in serum and Polymerase Cham Reaction assay (PCR) was performed to detect CAEV nucleic acid in blood samples. Out of 273 animals tested, 20 (7.3%) were confirmed as CAEV infected by ELISA and nucleic acid of CAEV was detected in 41 (23.7%) out of 173 animals by PCR. ELISA failed to detect 24 samples that were positive by PCR, while PCR failed to detect only two samples that were positive by ELISA. In the present study, we reported for the first time the existence of CAEV infection, using ELISA and PCR in goats in Sudan. © Medwell Journals, 2010.

Corner L.A.L.,University College Dublin | O'Meara D.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Costello E.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Lesellier S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Gormley E.,University College Dublin
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Populations of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) are a significant reservoir of infection for cattle in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In this study the distribution of infection, histological lesions and gross lesions was determined in a sample of 132 culled badgers from naturally-infected wild populations. Badgers were culled when an epidemiological investigation following a tuberculosis breakdown in a cattle herd implicated badgers as the probable source of infection. The definition of tuberculosis infection was based on the isolation of M. bovis from tissues or clinical samples. An accurate diagnosis of infection was achieved by culturing a wide range of lymph nodes (LN) and organ tissues (mean 32.1) and clinical samples (faeces and urine) from each badger.Infection was detected in 57/132 badgers (43.2%). Histological lesions consistent with tuberculosis were seen in 39/57 (68.4%) culture-positive and 7/75 (9.3%) culture-negative animals. Gross lesions were seen in only 30/57 (52.6%) infected badgers, leaving a high proportion (47.4%) of infected animals with latent infection (no grossly visible lesions). The most frequently infected tissues were the lungs and axillary LN, followed by the deep cervical LN, parotid LN and tracheobronchial LN. The data support the hypotheses that in badgers there are only two significant routes of infection, namely, the lower respiratory tract and bite wounds, and that badgers are very susceptible to infection but resistant to the development and progression of the disease. At all levels of disease severity, infection was found in widely dispersed anatomical locations suggesting that there is early dissemination of infection in the period preceding the development of active immunity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Abdurrahman M.B.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

In mid-August 2004, an outbreak of a previously unknown fatal disease of camels was reported to Kassala State veterinary authorities. Several areas in the state were visited during August-October 2004 to collect epidemiological data and specimens for diagnosis. Clinically the disease was characterized by sudden death of apparently healthy animals and yellowish and later bloody diarrhea and abortion. The disease outbreaks coincided with the seasonal movement of animals towards autumn green pasture. Death was always sudden and proceeded with colic and difficulty in respiration. Mortality rate ranged between 0% and 50% and vary in accordance with the area with a mean of 7.4%. More than 80% of deaths were in pregnant and recently-delivered she-camels. All age, sex and breed groups were affected but more than 50% of deaths were reported in adult animals in comparison to calves and young camels. The main post-mortem findings include lung congestion and consolidation, paleness and fragility of liver, enlarged lymph nodes and congestion and hemorrhage of small intestine and stomach. Agar gel diffusion test (AGDT), RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture gave positive results for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a virus belonging to the Morbillivirus, Genus, member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The effect of this new devastating disease on camel production in the affected area was discussed as well as proposals for future research. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ibrahim K.,Sinnar Veterinary Research Laboratories | Thomas R.,University of Hohenheim | Peter K.,University of Ulm | Omer R.A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Omer R.A.,University of Leipzig
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan. Methods: A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results: The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2 cm) respectively. The highest fertility rate was found in camel cysts with 85.4% (35/41) followed by cattle (50.0%, 32/64) and sheep (39.0%, 11/28). All examined cysts belonged to Echinococcus canadensis G6, which was confirmed to be the overwhelmingly predominant species in that area. Conclusion: The epidemiological situation in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state is characterized by intense transmission of Echinococcus canadensis G6, thereby closely resembling the situation in most other regions of Sudan.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Teagasc, Trinity College Dublin and Livestock Improvement Corporation
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

We hypothesised that epigenetic regulation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes contributes to a shift toward a dysfunctional T cell phenotype which may impact on their ability to clear mycobacterial infection. Combined RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified 193 significantly differentially expressed genes and 760 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), between CD4(+) T cells from M. bovis infected and healthy cattle. 196 DMRs were located within 10kb of annotated genes, including GATA3 and RORC, both of which encode transcription factors that promote TH2 and TH17 T helper cell subsets respectively. Gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression levels for the TNFRSF4 and Interferon- genes were significantly negatively correlated suggesting a regulatory relationship. Pathway analysis of DMRs identified enrichment of genes involved in the anti-proliferative TGF- signaling pathway and TGFB1 expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood leukocytes from TB-infected cattle. This first analysis of the bovine CD4(+) T cell methylome suggests that DNA methylation directly contributes to a distinct gene expression signature in CD4(+) T cells from cattle infected with M. bovis. Specific methylation changes proximal to key inflammatory gene loci may be critical to the emergence of a non-protective CD4(+) T cell response during mycobacterial infection in cattle.

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