Central Veterinary Research Institute

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Central Veterinary Research Institute

Dubai, United Arab Emirates
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Muuka G.,Central Veterinary Research Institute | Muuka G.,University of Zambia | Hang'ombe B.M.,University of Zambia | Nalubamba K.S.,University of Zambia | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

The complement fixation test (CFT), the c-ELISA and an indirect LppQ ELISA were compared to post-mortem (PM) inspection for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Sera from 797 cattle in the CBPP affected area of Kazungula, Zambia and 202 sera from Lusaka, Zambia, a CBPP-free area were used. The clinical history of CBPP was recorded and all the cattle from Kazungula were slaughtered and PM inspections conducted. The prevalence of CBPP in Kazungula was 67.5% (95%CI 67.2%, 70.8%), 52.6% (95%CI 49.2%, 56.2%), 59.0% (95%CI 55.5%, 62.4%) and 44.4% (95%CI 41.0%, 47.9%) using PM inspection, CFT, c-ELISA and LppQ ELISA, respectively. Three of the 202 negative control animals tested positive on the c-ELISA although they were from a known CBPP negative zone. In this study, the c-ELISA was more sensitive in detecting cattle with lesions in the chronic stage than any other test whilst the CFT detected more during the onset stage. No single serological test could detect all stages of CBPP infection, therefore the use of more than one test is advised. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Schuster R.K.,Central Veterinary Research Institute | Wibbelt G.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Kinne J.,Central Veterinary Research Institute
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2014

Physocephalus dromedarii stat. nov. was found in the abomasum of two adult female dromedaries originating from a farm in Dubai. Previously, this nematode has been misidentified as a subspecies of Ph. sexalatus but morphological differences are striking enough for it to be upgraded to a species. Physocephalus dromedarii is larger than Ph. sexalatus and has longer spicules. There are 20-22 oblique crests at the ventral surface between the caudal alae of the male compared to 7-8 in the case of Ph. sexalatus. The most significant differences are the presence of two pairs of papillae between cloaca and postcloacal plate of the male and the existence of a swelling in the second half of the female body formed by loops of both uterine horns. © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Sikombe T.,Central Veterinary Research Institute | Sikombe T.,University of Zambia | Kasanga C.J.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Sinkala Y.,University of Zambia | And 6 more authors.
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Zambia. Little is known of the epidemiology of FMD virus (FMDV) in the country and this has led to the continuous occurrence of FMD in southern Zambia. FMD severely impacts pastoral and agro-pastoral communities who are most reliant on livestock products for economy and food security. Southern Zambia is densely populated with livestock and wildlife, which are usually in contact almost throughout the year. The control of FMD in Zambia is mainly done strategically through vaccination, but this is complicated by the presence of buffaloes and traditional cattle farmers’ practice of transhumance in areas harbouring wild animals. The current research aims at determining the infection status and FMD virus (FMDV) serotype(s) circulating in domesticated and wild animals in southern Zambia. A targeted cross-sectional study will be employed in this study. Sera and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluids will be obtained from cattle and buffaloes in selected areas of Zambia. Epidemiological data such as age, sex, health, and vaccination status of animals will be taken during sampling. Infection status will be determined by NSP-ELISA targeting the 3ABC region of FMDV genome. FMDV serotypes will be examined by LPB-ELISA and/or antigen ELISA on OP samples. This research has the potential to unravel the infection status and serotype(s) of circulating FMDV strains in Zambia. This information will be useful in designing a rational strategy of control of FMD in Zambia and the neighbouring countries. © 2014. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals.


PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2011

The complement fixation test (CFT), the c-ELISA and an indirect LppQ ELISA were compared to post-mortem (PM) inspection for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Sera from 797 cattle in the CBPP affected area of Kazungula, Zambia and 202 sera from Lusaka, Zambia, a CBPP-free area were used. The clinical history of CBPP was recorded and all the cattle from Kazungula were slaughtered and PM inspections conducted. The prevalence of CBPP in Kazungula was 67.5% (95%CI 67.2%, 70.8%), 52.6% (95%CI 49.2%, 56.2%), 59.0% (95%CI 55.5%, 62.4%) and 44.4% (95%CI 41.0%, 47.9%) using PM inspection, CFT, c-ELISA and LppQ ELISA, respectively. Three of the 202 negative control animals tested positive on the c-ELISA although they were from a known CBPP negative zone. In this study, the c-ELISA was more sensitive in detecting cattle with lesions in the chronic stage than any other test whilst the CFT detected more during the onset stage. No single serological test could detect all stages of CBPP infection, therefore the use of more than one test is advised.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and Central Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of helminthology | Year: 2014

Physocephalus dromedarii stat. nov. was found in the abomasum of two adult female dromedaries originating from a farm in Dubai. Previously, this nematode has been misidentified as a subspecies of Ph. sexalatus but morphological differences are striking enough for it to be upgraded to a species. Physocephalus dromedarii is larger than Ph. sexalatus and has longer spicules. There are 20-22 oblique crests at the ventral surface between the caudal alae of the male compared to 7-8 in the case of Ph. sexalatus. The most significant differences are the presence of two pairs of papillae between cloaca and postcloacal plate of the male and the existence of a swelling in the second half of the female body formed by loops of both uterine horns.


PubMed | Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Sokoine University of Agriculture, University of Zambia and Central Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical doctor | Year: 2016

Plague is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The disease has caused periodic global devastation since the first outbreak in the 6th century. Two months after a suspected plague outbreak in Nyimba district, samples were collected from 94 livestock (goats and pigs), 25 rodents, 6 shrews and 33 fleas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to investigate the presence of Y. pestis, which showed that 16.0% (4/25) of rodents, 16.7% (1/6) of shrews (Crocidura spp) and 6.0% (5/83) of goats were positive for IgG antibodies against Fraction 1 antigen of Y. pestis. Plasminogen activator (Pla) gene (DNA) of Y. pestis was detected in five pools containing 36.4% (12/33) fleas collected from pigs (n=4), goats (n=5) and rodents (n=3). The detection of Pla gene in fleas and IgG antibodies against Fraction1 antigen in rodents, shrews and goats suggest that Y. pestis had been present in the study area in the recent past.


PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Institute, Botswana Vaccine Institute, Southern African Development Community Secretariat, Southern African Development Community and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Veterinary medicine international | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes.

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