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Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Japaridze T.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Senda A.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Nozaki H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yanagida M.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

A bovine lipocalin, previously identified as a putative odorant-binding protein in bovine colostrum (bcOBP), was cloned and expressed, and its monoclonal antibody was established. bcOBP was constantly secreted into milk on day of parturition until at least 10 d postpartum at a concentration of 181 ± 39μg/L. Besides milk, bcOBP occurred in the nasal mucus, saliva, amniotic fluid, vaginal discharge, and blood plasma. Despite its low concentration, the distribution pattern and the finding that bcOBP harbored a characteristic sequence motif, CxxxC, which is conserved among insect and mammal pheromone binding proteins, suggest that bcOBP functions as a pheromone carrier. The presence of bcOBP in the plasma at varied concentrations depending on the lactation period does not exclude the possibility that bcOBP is secreted into milk from the blood. Cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody indicated presence of proteins homologous to bcOBP in the colostrum of farm animals of Cetartiodactyla.

Anantharam P.,Iowa State University | Shao D.,Iowa State University | Imerman P.M.,Iowa State University | Burrough E.,Iowa State University | And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2016

Orellanine (OR) toxin is produced by mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius which grow in North America and in Europe. OR poisoning is characterized by severe oliguric acute renal failure, with a mortality rate of 10%-30%. Diagnosis of OR poisoning currently hinges on a history of ingestion of Cortinarius mushrooms and histopathology of renal biopsies. A key step in the diagnostic approach is analysis of tissues for OR. Currently, tissue-based analytical methods for OR are nonspecific and lack sensitivity. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop definitive HPLC and LC-MS/MS tissue-based analytical methods for OR; and (2) to investigate toxicological effects of OR in mice. The HPLC limit of quantitation was 10 μg/g. For fortification levels of 15 μg/g to 50 μg/g OR in kidney, the relative standard deviation was between 1.3% and 9.8%, and accuracy was within 1.5% to 7.1%. A matrix-matched calibration curve was reproduced in this range with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97-0.99. The limit of detection was 20 ng/g for LC-MS/MS. In OR-injected mice, kidney OR concentrations were 97 ± 51 μg/g on Day 0 and 17 ± 1 μg/g on termination Day 3. Splenic and liver injuries were novel findings in this mouse model. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Ishtiaq F.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Gilbert M.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Brown J.,University of Georgia | Joyner P.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

Wild waterbirds sampled July 2006-September 2009 in Mongolia were tested for antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus with the use of a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies were detected in 25% (572/2,282) of tested birds representing 26 species, and all antibody-positive samples were from 12 species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. The highest antibody prevalence was in Ruddy Shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea; 61.7%; n5261; 95% confidence interval [CI] 55.8-67.6%), Whooper Swans (Cygnus cygnus; 38.4%; n5242; 95% CI 32.3-44.5%), Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides; 15%; n5127; 95% CI 8.6-21.4%), Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus; 13%; n5738; 95% CI 10.3-15.1%), and Mongolian Gulls (Larus mongolicus; 3.9%; n5255; 95% CI 1.3-6.5%). There was no significant temporal or spatial variation in the presence of antibodies in the sampled species. However, Bar-headed Geese and Mongolian Gulls showed spatial variation in antibody prevalence in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Our study provides insights into the hatch year waterbirds' exposure to AI virus at their natal and molting sites in Mongolia. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

Shimizu T.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Ganzorig K.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Ganzorig K.,State Central Veterinary Laboratory | Miyamoto A.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Peptide Science | Year: 2014

Several naturally occurring peptides in bovine milk were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Chromatograms of peptide fractions (passed through an ultra-filtration membrane, nominal molecular weight limit 3000) prepared from colostrum (collected immediately after parturition) and transitional milk (collected 5 days postpartum) showed that they were almost identical. In total, six peptides, αs1-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), αs1-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ), αs1-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG), αs1-CN (f46-52) (VFGKEKV), αs1-CN (f94-105) (HIQKEDVPSER), and β-CN (f121-128) (HKEMPFPK), were identified. One of the major peptides, the N-terminal fragment of αs1- casein, varied structurally during early lactation: αs1-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG) and αs1-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH)/ αs1-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ) were found in colostrum and transitional milk, respectively. A chemically synthesized peptide, αs1-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), inhibited apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions in a dose-dependent manner, in consequence of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suppressions. The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gilbert M.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Jambal L.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Karesh W.B.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Fine A.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005-2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade; all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study.

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