Central Veterinary Research Laboratories

Khartoum, Sudan

Central Veterinary Research Laboratories

Khartoum, Sudan

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Enan K.A.,Central Laboratory | El-Eragi A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | El Hussein A.R.M.,Central Laboratory | Elkhidir I.M.,University of Khartoum
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Background: This study was carried out to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG and IgM antibodies using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in renal transplant patients in Khartoum state, Sudan and to improve the diagnosis of HCMV through the introduction of Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing. A total of 98 plasma samples were collected randomly from renal transplant patients at Ibin Sina Hospital and Salma Centre for Transplantation and Haemodialysis during the period from August to September 2006. Results: Among the 98 renal transplant patients, 65 were males and 33 females. The results revealed that HCMV IgG was present in all patients' plasma 98/98 (100%), while only 6/98 (6.1%) had IgM antibodies in their plasma. HCMV DNA viral loads were detected in 32 patients 32/98 (32.7%) using Real-time PCR. Conclusions: The HCMV IgG results indicate a high prevalence of past HCMV infection in all tested groups, while the finding of IgM may reflect a recent infection or reactivation. HCMV detection by real-time PCR in the present study indicated a high prevalence among renal transplant patients in Khartoum. In conclusion, the prevalence of HCMV in Khartoum State was documented through detection of HCMV-specific antibodies. Further study using various diagnostic methods should be considered to determine the prevalence of HCMV disease at the national level. © 2011 Enan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kwiatek O.,Control of Exotic and Emerging Animal Diseases | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000-2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa.

Hassan W.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Khair S.A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Mochotlhoane B.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | Abolnik C.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Virus Genes | Year: 2010

Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia into parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of isolates obtained from outbreaks of ND in Sudan and found that all contemporary strains isolated between 2003 and 2006 were of genotype 5d, containing the virulent fusion protein cleavage site (F0) motif 112RRQKRF117. Introduction via a Middle Eastern trade partner is likely to be the source of infection since phylogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of introduction from western and southern Africa. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Elfahal A.M.,Central Laboratory | Zakia A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | El-Hussien A.M.,Central Laboratory
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010

Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection of goats has a worldwide distribution and trade in live animals is considered the main reason for the widespread of the disease. The disease has not been previously recognized in the Sudan neither by serological nor molecular biological methods. The objective of this study was to investigate CAEV infection among the imported purebred goats and their crossbred lines in the Sudan, generate information about the disease and to establish methods for diagnosis of CAEV infections, as a base line for further epidemiological and virological studies. In this study, samples (273 serum and 173 whole blood) were collected from goats in different areas of Khartoum state, Sudan. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to detect CAEV-specific antibodies in serum and Polymerase Cham Reaction assay (PCR) was performed to detect CAEV nucleic acid in blood samples. Out of 273 animals tested, 20 (7.3%) were confirmed as CAEV infected by ELISA and nucleic acid of CAEV was detected in 41 (23.7%) out of 173 animals by PCR. ELISA failed to detect 24 samples that were positive by PCR, while PCR failed to detect only two samples that were positive by ELISA. In the present study, we reported for the first time the existence of CAEV infection, using ELISA and PCR in goats in Sudan. © Medwell Journals, 2010.

Corner L.A.L.,University College Dublin | O'Meara D.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Costello E.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Lesellier S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Gormley E.,University College Dublin
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Populations of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) are a significant reservoir of infection for cattle in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In this study the distribution of infection, histological lesions and gross lesions was determined in a sample of 132 culled badgers from naturally-infected wild populations. Badgers were culled when an epidemiological investigation following a tuberculosis breakdown in a cattle herd implicated badgers as the probable source of infection. The definition of tuberculosis infection was based on the isolation of M. bovis from tissues or clinical samples. An accurate diagnosis of infection was achieved by culturing a wide range of lymph nodes (LN) and organ tissues (mean 32.1) and clinical samples (faeces and urine) from each badger.Infection was detected in 57/132 badgers (43.2%). Histological lesions consistent with tuberculosis were seen in 39/57 (68.4%) culture-positive and 7/75 (9.3%) culture-negative animals. Gross lesions were seen in only 30/57 (52.6%) infected badgers, leaving a high proportion (47.4%) of infected animals with latent infection (no grossly visible lesions). The most frequently infected tissues were the lungs and axillary LN, followed by the deep cervical LN, parotid LN and tracheobronchial LN. The data support the hypotheses that in badgers there are only two significant routes of infection, namely, the lower respiratory tract and bite wounds, and that badgers are very susceptible to infection but resistant to the development and progression of the disease. At all levels of disease severity, infection was found in widely dispersed anatomical locations suggesting that there is early dissemination of infection in the period preceding the development of active immunity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Elshafie E.I.,University Putra Malaysia | Elshafie E.I.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Sani R.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hassan L.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2013

A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection among horses, using a total of 527 blood samples obtained from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors associated with T. evansi seroprevalence. The overall seroprevalence detected by card agglutination test for T. evansi (CATT/. T. evansi) was 13.90% (73/527, CI: 11.2-17.1%). Female and exogenous horses showed a higher risk in association with the disease seroprevalence compared to other groups. The majority of the horse owners were not familiar with surra (85.30%). However, most of them were very cautious with the health of their animals. In conclusion, this study showed that T. evansi occurred in low frequency among horses in Peninsular Malaysia, and the good management system adopted by horse owners was probably responsible for the low T. evansi occurrence. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Waggett B.E.,University of Edinburgh | McGorum B.C.,University of Edinburgh | Shaw D.J.,University of Edinburgh | Pirie R.S.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2010

It has been proposed that synaptophysin, an abundant integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, is an immunohistochemical marker for degenerating neurons in equine grass sickness (GS). In the present study, a statistically generated decision tree based on assessment of synaptophysin-immunolabelled ileal sections facilitated correct differentiation of all 20 cases of GS and 24 cases of non-GS disease (comprising eight horses with colic, six with neuroparalytic botulism and 10 controls). This technique also facilitated correct diagnosis of GS in all three cases that had been erroneously classified as having non-GS disease based on conventional interpretation of haematoxylin and eosin-stained cryostat sections of ileal surgical biopsies. Further prospective studies involving larger numbers of horses are required to fully validate this decision tree. In contrast to GS, botulism did not alter ileal neuron density or synaptophysin labelling, indicating that different mechanisms cause neuronal damage and/or dysfunction in GS and botulism. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Abdurrahman M.B.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

In mid-August 2004, an outbreak of a previously unknown fatal disease of camels was reported to Kassala State veterinary authorities. Several areas in the state were visited during August-October 2004 to collect epidemiological data and specimens for diagnosis. Clinically the disease was characterized by sudden death of apparently healthy animals and yellowish and later bloody diarrhea and abortion. The disease outbreaks coincided with the seasonal movement of animals towards autumn green pasture. Death was always sudden and proceeded with colic and difficulty in respiration. Mortality rate ranged between 0% and 50% and vary in accordance with the area with a mean of 7.4%. More than 80% of deaths were in pregnant and recently-delivered she-camels. All age, sex and breed groups were affected but more than 50% of deaths were reported in adult animals in comparison to calves and young camels. The main post-mortem findings include lung congestion and consolidation, paleness and fragility of liver, enlarged lymph nodes and congestion and hemorrhage of small intestine and stomach. Agar gel diffusion test (AGDT), RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture gave positive results for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a virus belonging to the Morbillivirus, Genus, member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The effect of this new devastating disease on camel production in the affected area was discussed as well as proposals for future research. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ibrahim K.,Sinnar Veterinary Research Laboratories | Thomas R.,University of Hohenheim | Peter K.,University of Ulm | Omer R.A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Omer R.A.,University of Leipzig
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan. Methods: A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results: The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2 cm) respectively. The highest fertility rate was found in camel cysts with 85.4% (35/41) followed by cattle (50.0%, 32/64) and sheep (39.0%, 11/28). All examined cysts belonged to Echinococcus canadensis G6, which was confirmed to be the overwhelmingly predominant species in that area. Conclusion: The epidemiological situation in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state is characterized by intense transmission of Echinococcus canadensis G6, thereby closely resembling the situation in most other regions of Sudan.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Teagasc, Trinity College Dublin and Livestock Improvement Corporation
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

We hypothesised that epigenetic regulation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes contributes to a shift toward a dysfunctional T cell phenotype which may impact on their ability to clear mycobacterial infection. Combined RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified 193 significantly differentially expressed genes and 760 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), between CD4(+) T cells from M. bovis infected and healthy cattle. 196 DMRs were located within 10kb of annotated genes, including GATA3 and RORC, both of which encode transcription factors that promote TH2 and TH17 T helper cell subsets respectively. Gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression levels for the TNFRSF4 and Interferon- genes were significantly negatively correlated suggesting a regulatory relationship. Pathway analysis of DMRs identified enrichment of genes involved in the anti-proliferative TGF- signaling pathway and TGFB1 expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood leukocytes from TB-infected cattle. This first analysis of the bovine CD4(+) T cell methylome suggests that DNA methylation directly contributes to a distinct gene expression signature in CD4(+) T cells from cattle infected with M. bovis. Specific methylation changes proximal to key inflammatory gene loci may be critical to the emergence of a non-protective CD4(+) T cell response during mycobacterial infection in cattle.

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