Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR

Lelystad, Netherlands

Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR

Lelystad, Netherlands
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PubMed | Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR and Animal Breeding and Genomics Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie | Year: 2016

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds.

PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR and University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Type: | Journal: Veterinary research | Year: 2015

Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a persistent infection and chronic inflammation of the gut in ruminants leading to bacterial shedding in feces in many infected animals. Although there are often strong MAP-specific immune responses in infected animals, immunological correlates of protection against progression to disease remain poorly defined. Analysis of cross-sectional data has suggested that the cellular immune response observed early in infection is effective at containing bacterial growth and shedding, in contrast to humoral immune responses. In this study, 20 MAP-infected calves were followed for nearly 5years during which MAP shedding, antigen-specific cellular (LPT) and humoral (ELISA) immune responses were measured. We found that MAP-specific cellular immune response developed slowly, with the peak of the immune response occurring one year post infection. MAP-specific humoral immunity expanded only in a subset of animals. Only in a subset of animals there was a statistically significant negative correlation between the amount of MAP shedding and magnitude of the MAP-specific cellular immune response. Direct fitting of simple mechanistic mathematical models to the shedding data suggested that MAP-specific immune responses contributed significantly to the kinetics of MAP shedding in most animals. However, whereas the MAP-specific cellular immune response was predicted to suppress shedding in some animals, in other animals it was predicted to increase shedding. In contrast, MAP-specific humoral response was always predicted to increase shedding. Our results illustrate the use of mathematical methods to understand relationships between mycobacteria and immunity in vivo but also highlight problems with establishing cause-effect links from observational data.

Afonso A.,European Food Safety Authority | Abrahantes J.C.,European Food Safety Authority | Conraths F.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Veldhuis A.,GD Animal Health Service | And 7 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

During the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) collected data on SBV occurrence across Europe in order to provide an assessment of spread and impact. By May 2013, twenty-nine countries were reporting to EFSA and twenty-two countries had reported cases of SBV. The total number of SBV herds reported was 13,846 and the number of SBV laboratory confirmed herds was 8730. The surveillance activities were based on the detection of SBV clinical cases (either adults or newborns). Malformation in newborns was the most commonly reported clinical sign of SBV-infection. All countries were able to provide the date when the first suspicion of SBV in the herd was reported and nineteen could report the location of the herd at a regional level. This allowed the spread of SBV in Europe to be measured both temporally and spatially. The number of SBV confirmed herds started to increase in December 2011 and two peaks were observed in 2012 (February and May). Confirmed herds continued to be reported in 2012 and into 2013. An increase during winter 2012 and spring 2013 was again observed, but the number of confirmed herds was lower than in the previous year. SBV spread rapidly throughout Europe from the initial area of detection. SBV was detected above the latitude of 60° North, which exceeds the northern expansion observed during the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in 2006-2009. The impact of SBV was calculated as ratio of the number of herds with at least one malformed SBV positive foetus and the total number of herds in this region. The 75th percentile of the malformations ratio in the various affected countries for the whole reporting period was below 1% and 3% for cattle and sheep herds, respectively. International data collection on emerging diseases represents a challenge as the nature of available data, data quality and the proportion of reported cases may vary widely between affected countries. Surveillance activities on emerging animal diseases are often structured only for case detection making the estimation of infection/diseases prevalence and the investigation of risk factors difficult. The impact of the disease must be determined to allow risk managers to take appropriate decisions. Simple within-herd impact indicators suitable for emerging disease outbreaks should be defined that could be measured as part of routine animal health surveillance programmes and allow for rapid and reliable impact assessment of emerging animal health diseases. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Institute Part of Wageningen UR, French Agency for food, Technical University of Denmark, Lane College and National Veterinary Institute SVA
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by availability of control measures (vaccines), which is also strengthened if knowledge is shared quickly between countries. The assessment of the bluetongue surveillance in the affected countries showed that the degree of voluntary engagement varied, and that it is important to engage the public by general awareness and dissemination of results. The degree of engagement will also aid in establishing a passive surveillance system.

Meiswinkel R.,Santa Maria del Monte | de Bree F.,Central Veterinary Institute | Bossers-De Vries R.,Central Veterinary Institute | Elbers A.R.W.,Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2015

In studies on Culicoides attacking livestock in the Netherlands, we chanced upon a species of the Obsoletus complex that we do not recognize, but whose dark wing pattern is distinctive. Nine cytochrome c oxidase (. CO1) sequences of our so-called 'dark obsoletus' support its status as a separate species, the sequences differing significantly from those representing Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) (90-91% homology) and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle (87-88% homology). In the last decade, several research groups in Europe have encountered 'mystery species' related to C. obsoletus and in some instances have made their sequences for various genetic loci available in GenBank. These include a CO1 series submitted from Sweden in 2012 (annotated as '. obsoletus 01, 02, or 03 MA-2012') and of which some share a 99% identity with our sequences for 'dark obsoletus'. Without doubt, the series from the Netherlands, along with a portion of the Swedish submissions, together represent a single species ('dark obsoletus'). Whether this species is referable to the Russian Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva recorded recently from Norway, Sweden and Poland, and based solely upon the external morphology of the male, is not clear. The presence in Western Europe of multiple undescribed species related to C. obsoletus means that the taxonomy of this important vector complex is not fully resolved; consequently, we know little about these cryptic species with regard to seasonality, geographic range and host preference. This is undesirable given that Culicoides-borne arboviruses causing disease in livestock are moving more regularly out of the tropics and spreading north into temperate latitudes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Wageningen University, Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR and University of Federal Defense Munich
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studies of pathogenicity may benefit from the recent development of an extracellular growth medium for C. burnetii. However, it is crucial to investigate the consistency of the virulence phenotype of strains propagated by the two fundamentally different culturing systems. In the present study, we assessed the viability of C. burnetii and the lipopolysaccaride (LPS) encoding region of the bacteria in both culture systems as indirect but key parameters to the infection potential of C. burnetii. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment-based real-time PCR was used for enumeration of viable C. burnetii which were validated by fluorescent infectious focus forming unit counting assays. Furthermore, RNA isolated from C. burnetiipropagated in both the culture systems was examined for LPS-related gene expression. All thus far known LPS-related genes were found to be expressed in early passages in both culturing systems indicating the presence of predominantly the phase I form of C. burnetii. Finally, we used immune-competent mice to provide direct evidence, that the relative virulence of different C. burnetii strains is essentially the same for both axenic and cell-based methods of propagation.

Bouwstra R.J.,Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR | Koch G.,Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR | Heutink R.,Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR | Harders F.,Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR | And 3 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015

Phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strains causing outbreaks in Dutch poultry farms in 2014 provides evidence for separate introduction of the virus in four outbreaks in farms located 16–112 km from each other and for between-farm transmission between the third and fourth outbreak in farms located 550 m from each other. In addition, the analysis showed that all European and two Japanese H5N8 virus strains are very closely related and seem to originate from a calculated common ancestor, which arose between July and September 2014. Our findings suggest that the Dutch outbreak virus strain ‘Ter Aar’ and the first German outbreak strain from 2014 shared a common ancestor. In addition, the data indicate that the Dutch outbreak viruses descended from an H5N8 virus that circulated around 2009 in Asia, possibly China, and subsequently spread to South Korea and Japan and finally also to Europe. Evolution of the virus seemed to follow a parallel track in Japan and Europe, which supports the hypothesis that H5N8 virus was exchanged between migratory wild waterfowl at their breeding grounds in Siberia and from there was carried by migrating waterfowl to Europe. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. As it is an intracellular pathogen, infection by C. burnetii requires adaptation to its eukaryotic host and intracellular environment. The recently developed cell-free medium also allows the bacteria to propagate without host cells, maintaining its infection potential. The adaptation to different hosts or extracellular environments has been assumed to involve genome-wide modulation of C. burnetii gene expression. However, little is currently known about these adaptation events which are critical for understanding the intracellular survival of C. burnetii.We studied C. burnetii genome-wide transcriptional patterns in vivo (mice spleen) and in cell and cell-free in vitro culture models to examine its metabolic pathways and virulence associated gene expression patterns that are required to colonize and persist in different environments. Within each model, the gene expression profiles of the Dutch C. burnetii outbreak strain (602) and NM reference strains were largely similar. In contrast, modulation of gene-expression was strongly influenced by the cultivation method, indicating adaptation of the bacterium to available components. Genome-wide expression profiles of C. burnetii from in vitro cell culture were more similar to those seen for in vivo conditions, while gene expression profiles of cell-free culture were more distant to in vivo. Under in vivo conditions, significant alterations of genes involved in metabolism and virulence were identified. We observed that C. burnetii under in vivo conditions predominantly uses glucose as a carbon source (mostly for biosynthetic processes) and fatty acids for energy generation. C. burnetii experienced nutrient limitation and anaerobiosis as major stressors, while phosphate limitation was identified as an important signal for intracellular growth inside eukaryotic host cells. Finally, the in vivo environment significantly induced expression of several virulence genes, including those implicated in LPS synthesis, colonization, host component modulation and DNA repair mechanisms.Our study shows that C. burnetii, with its relative small genome, requires only a subset of core gene functions to survive under in vitro conditions, but requires the induction of full repertoire of genes for successful pathogenesis and thriving in harsh environments in vivo.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Institute Part of Wageningen UR
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2015

Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in Eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of FMD in four administrative regions of the country. We analysed cattle sera (n=2429) for FMD virus antibodies using the non-structural ELISA (NS ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The overall seroprevalence was 26% and 30% for the NS ELISA and VNT, respectively. FMD virus serotypes O (14%) and A (11%) were the most prevalent. Gash Barka showed the highest (39%) seroprevalence both in NS ELISA and VNT compared to the other three administrative regions. Strategic FMD virus vaccination with type O and A (matching circulating strains) in combination of zoo-sanitary measures would be the best control option for Eritrea which could be started in areas where the disease is less endemic.

PubMed | Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016

Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1) causes a haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality in wild and farmed European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.) and Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, Temminck & Schlegel). Detection of AngHV1 is currently based on virus isolation in cell culture, antibody-based typing assays or conventional PCR. We developed, optimized and concisely validated a diagnostic TaqMan probe based real-time PCR assay for the detection of AngHV1. The primers and probe target AngHV1 open reading frame 57, encoding the capsid protease and scaffold protein. Compared to conventional PCR, the developed real-time PCR is faster, less labour-intensive and has a reduced risk of cross-contamination. The real-time PCR assay was shown to be analytically sensitive and specific and has a high repeatability, efficiency and r(2) -value. The diagnostic performance of the assay was determined by testing 10% w/v organ suspensions and virus cultures from wild and farmed European eels from the Netherlands by conventional and real-time PCR. The developed real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of AngHV1 in 10% w/v organ suspensions from wild and farmed European eels.

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