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Hopkins K.L.,Public Health England | Kirchner M.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Guerra B.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Granier S.A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, strep-tomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sul-phonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.


Zou W.-Q.,Case Western Reserve University | Puoti G.,Case Western Reserve University | Xiao X.,Case Western Reserve University | Yuan J.,Case Western Reserve University | And 24 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2010

Objective: The objective of the study is to report 2 new genotypic forms of protease-sensitive prionopathy (PSPr), a novel prion disease described in 2008, in 11 subjects all homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene (129VV). The 2 new PSPr forms affect individuals who are either homozygous for methionine (129MM) or heterozygous for methionine/valine (129MV). Methods: Fifteen affected subjects with 129MM, 129MV, and 129VV underwent comparative evaluation at the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center for clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, genotypical, and PrP characteristics. Results: Disease duration (between 22 and 45 months) was significantly different in the 129VV and 129MV subjects. Most other phenotypic features along with the PrP electrophoretic profile were similar but distinguishable in the 3 129 genotypes. A major difference laid in the sensitivity to protease digestion of the disease-associated PrP, which was high in 129VV but much lower, or altogether lacking, in 129MV and 129MM. This difference prompted the substitution of the original designation with "variably protease-sensitive prionopathy" (VPSPr). None of the subjects had mutations in the PrP gene coding region. Interpretation: Because all 3 129 genotypes are involved, and are associated with distinguishable phenotypes, VPSPr becomes the second sporadic prion protein disease with this feature after Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, originally reported in 1920. However, the characteristics of the abnormal prion protein suggest that VPSPr is different from typical prion diseases, and perhaps more akin to subtypes of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. © 2010 American Neurological Association.


Bellec L.,French Agency for Food | Bellec L.,European University of Brittany | Cabon J.,French Agency for Food | Cabon J.,European University of Brittany | And 11 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2014

Wild freshwater eel populations have dramatically declined in recent past decades in Europe and America, partially through the impact of several factors including the wide spread of infectious diseases. The anguillid rhabdoviruses eel virus European X (EVEX) and eel virus American (EVA) potentially play a role in this decline, even if their real contribution is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity of anguiillid rhabdoviruses by analysing sequences from the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein (P) genes of 57 viral strains collected from seven countries over 40 years using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic trees from the three genes are congruent and allow two monophyletic groups, European and American, to be clearly distinguished. Results of nucleotide substitution rates per site per year indicate that the P gene is expected to evolve most rapidly. The nucleotide diversity observed is low (2–3%) for the three genes, with a significantly higher variability within the P gene, which encodes multiple proteins from a single genomic RNA sequence, particularly a small C protein. This putative C protein is a potential molecular marker suitable for characterization of distinct genotypes within anguillid rhabdoviruses. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first molecular characterization of EVA, brings new insights to the evolutionary dynamics of two genotypes of Anguillid rhabdovirus, and is a baseline for further investigations on the tracking of its spread. © 2014Journal of General Virology. All rights reserved.


Solyman S.M.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Black C.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Black C.C.,U.S. Army | Duim B.,University Utrecht | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen in dogs. Four housekeeping genes with allelic polymorphisms were identified and used to develop an expanded multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The new seven-locus technique shows S. pseudintermedius to have greater genetic diversity than previous methods and discriminates more isolates based upon host origin. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Stokes M.O.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Stokes M.O.,Kingston University | Cottell J.L.,University of Birmingham | Piddock L.J.V.,University of Birmingham | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To detect and characterize Escherichia coli strains and pCT-like plasmids implicated in the dissemination of the CTX-M-14 gene in animals and humans, in England and Wales. Methods: UK CTX-M-14-producing E. coli (n=70) from cattle (n=33), turkeys (n=9), sheep (n=2) and humans (n=26) were screened using multiplex PCR for the detection of a previously characterized plasmid, pCT. Isolates found to be carrying two or more pCT genetic markers were further analysed using PFGE. Their antimicrobialresistance genes and virulence genes were also determined. These plasmids were transferred to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium 26R and further examined for incompatibility type, genetic environment of the bla CTX-M-14 gene, size, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and nikB sequence. Results: The 25 E. coli isolates carrying pCT genetic markers generated 19 different PFGE profiles, and 23 isolates had different virulence and antimicrobial-resistance gene patterns. One isolate from cattle was a verotoxigenic E. coli ('VTEC'); the rest were commensal or extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. pCT-like plasmids with similar molecular characteristics (size, replicon type, RFLP pattern, pCT markers and genetic environment of the bla CTX-M-14 gene) were detected in 21/25 of the field isolates, which comprised those from cattle (n=9), turkeys (n=8) and humans (n=4). All pCT-like plasmids were conjugative, and most were IncK (n=21) and had the same local genetic environment flanking the blaCTX-M-14 gene (n=23). RFLP analysis demonstrated ≥75% similarity among most plasmids (n=22). Conclusions: pCT-like plasmids were common vectors for horizontal dissemination of 30% of the bla CTX-M-14 genes to different E. coli isolates from humans, cattle and turkeys. © Crown copyright 2012.


Woudstra C.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Skarin H.,National Veterinary Institute | Anniballi F.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita Laboratorio Alimenti | Fenicia L.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita Laboratorio Alimenti | And 7 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Clostridium botulinum types C and D, as well as their mosaic variants C-D and D-C, are associated with avian and mammalian botulism. This study reports on the development of low-density macroarrays based on the GeneDisc cycler platform (Pall-Gene-Disc Technologies) applied to the simultaneous detection of the C. botulinum subtypes C, C-D, D, and D-C. The limit of detection of the PCR assays was 38 fg of total DNA, corresponding to 15 genome copies. Artificially contaminated samples of cecum showed a limit of detection below 50 spores/g. The tests were performed with a large variety of bacterial strains, including C. botulinum types C (n=12), C-D (n=29), D (n=5), and D-C (n=10), other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing Clostridium strains (n=20), non-BoNT-producing clostridia (n=20), and other bacterial species (n=23), and showed a high specificity. These PCR assays were compared to previously published real-time PCRs for the detection of C. botulinum in 292 samples collected from cases of botulism events in four European regions. The majority of the samples originated from wild birds (n= 108), poultry (n=60), and bovines (n=56). Among the 292 samples, 144 were positive for either the bont/C-D or the bont/D-C gene by using the GeneDisc arrays. The reliability of the results tallied to 97.94%. Interestingly, only BoNT mosaics, types C-D and D-C, were found in naturally contaminated samples whatever their animal origin and their geographical location. Further investigations should now be performed in order to check that mosaic types dominate in Europe and that acquisition of mosaic types helps in survival or adaptation to particular niche. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Segura M.,University of Montréal | Zheng H.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | De Greeff A.D.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen | Gao G.F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 23 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Although sporadic cases of human infections had been reported worldwide, deadly S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia. The severity of the disease underscores the lack of knowledge on the virulence and zoonotic evolution of this human-infecting agent. The pathogenesis of the infection, interactions with host cells and new avenues for treatments were among the topics discussed during the First International Workshop on S. suis (China 2013). © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.


Segura M.,University of Montréal | Zheng H.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Greeff A.D.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen | Gao G.F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 23 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam. This article, the first of a two-part report on this First International Workshop, reviews current aspects of the epidemiology and population genomics of S. suis, covers public health concerns and discusses questions about S. suis serotyping and molecular diagnostics. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.


Stokes M.O.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Stokes M.O.,Kingston University | AbuOun M.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Umur S.,Royal Holloway, University of London | And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

The same plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-14b was identified from an Escherichia coli isolate and an Enterobacter cloacae isolate collected from cattle in the United Kingdom by complete plasmid sequencing. This 35,341-bp plasmid, pSAM7, had an IncX4 backbone that is 99% identical to that of pJIE143 from a human isolate in Australia. PCR screening identified pSAM7-like plasmids in three other E. coli isolates of different multilocus sequence types isolated from cattle on different farms in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Hagenaars T.J.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen | Dekker A.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen | De Jong M.C.M.,Wageningen University | Eble P.L.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Mathematical models for the spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) have been developed and used for a number of purposes in the recent literature. One important purpose is predicting the effect of strategies to combat between-farm epidemic spread, in support of decision-making on epidemic control. The authors briefly review the various modelling approaches, discussing the parameters used and how estimates may be obtained for these parameters. They emphasise that, in addition to the estimation of FMD transmission parameters, the choice of model structure (including the number and type of parameters used) is also crucial. Two gaps in the knowledge of FMD transmission, related to model construction and parameter quantification, are identified: transmission between different species and the way in which vaccination affects such transmission, and route-specific FMD transmission properties. In particular, the authors pay attention to the role that small-scale transmission experiments can play in bridging these gaps.

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